Foucault - Key Concepts

September 15, 2017 | Author: Adam Eva | Category: Power (Social And Political), Force, Michel Foucault, Discourse, Theory
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Michel Foucault Key Concepts Edited by Dianna Taylor

ACUMEN

© Editorial matter and selection, 2 0 1 1 Dianna Taylor. Individual contributions, the contributors. This book is copyright under the Berne Convention. No reproduction without permission. All rights reserved. First published in 20 1 1 by Acumen Acumen Publishing Limited 4 Saddler Street Durham DH 1 3 NP www. acumenpublishing.co.uk ISBN: ISBN:

978 - 1 -84465-23 4 - 1 (hardcover) 978- 1 -84465-23 5 - 8 (paperback)

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Designed and typeset in Classical Garamond and Myriad. Printed by Ashford Colour Press Ltd, UK.

Contents

Contributors

Vll

Introduction: Power, fre e dom and subjectivity

1

Dianna Taylor

PART 1: POWER 1.

13

Foucault's theory of power Richard A. Lynch

2.

27

Disciplinary power Marcelo Hoffman

3.

41

B iopower Chloe Taylor

4.

Power/knowledge

55

Ellen K. Feder

PART II: F REEDOM 5.

Foucault's conception of freedom

71

Todd May

6.

Fre e dom a n d bodies

85

johanna Oksala

7.

Free dom and spirituality

99

Karen Vintges v

CONTENTS

8.

The practice of fre e dom

111

Eduardo Mendieta

PART Ill: S UBJECTIVITY 9.

Foucault's theory a n d practice o f subjectivity

1 27

Edward McGushin

1 0.

Subjectivity and truth

1 43

Brad Elliott Stone

1 1.

S ubjectivity and p ower

159

Cressida]. Heyes

1 2.

Practices of the self

1 73

Dianna Taylor

187 189 196

Chronology Bibliography Index

Vl

Contributors

Ellen K. Feder is Associate

Professor of Philosophy at American Univer­ sity in Washington, DC. She is author of Family Bonds: Genealogies of Race and Gender (2007) and is writing a manuscript on ethics and the medical management of intersex. Cressida J. Heyes is Canada Research Chair in Philosophy of Gen­ der and Sexuality at the University of Alberta and the author of Line Drawings: Defining Women through Feminist Practice (2000) and Self­ Transformations: Foucault, Ethics, and Normalized Bodies (2007).

is Assistant Professor of Political Science at Marian University, Wisconsin. He is the author of "Foucault's Politics and Bel­ licosity as a Matrix for Power Relations" (2007). His article "Contain­ ments of the Unpredictable in Arendt and Foucault" is forthcoming.

Marcelo Hoffman

is Instructor of Philosophy at DePauw University. His translations include Foucault, Ewald, and Isabelle Thomas-Fogiel's

Richard A. Lynch

Reference and Self-reference: On the "Death of Philosophy" in Con­ temporary Thought (forthcoming) , and his scholarly articles address Foucault, Hegel, Habermas, Bakhtin and others. is Class of 1 94 1 Memorial Professor of the Humanities at Clemson University, USA. He is the author of ten books of philosophy. His most recent work is Contemporary Movements and the Thought of Jacques Ranciere: Equality in Action (20 1 0) . Todd May

VII

CONTRIBUTORS

Edward McGushin is an Associate Professor of Philosophy at Saint Anselm College, New Hampshire. He is author of Foucault's Askesis: An Introduction to the Philosophical Life (2007). Eduardo Mendieta is Professor of Philosophy at the State University of New York, Stony Brook. He is author of Global Fragments: Globaliza­ tions, Latinamericanisms, and Critical Theory (2007) and co-editor of Pragmatism, Nation, and Race: Community in the Age of Empire (2009).

is Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Dundee. She is the author of Foucault on Freedom (2005) and How to Read Foucault (2007) as well as numerous articles on Foucault, feminist theory and political philosophy.

Johanna Oksala

Brad Elliott Stone is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Loyola Marymount University, where he is also the Director of the University Honors Program. His research interests are contemporary continental philosophy, philosophy of religion and American pragmatism. Chloe Taylor is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the University of Alberta. She is author of The Culture of Confession from Augustine to Foucault (2009) and is writing a manuscript entitled Sex Crimes and

Misdemeanours: Foucault, Feminism, and the Politics of Sexual Crime. Dianna Taylor is Associate Professor of Philosophy at John Carroll Uni­ versity, Ohio. She has written articles on Foucault and Hannah Arendt and co-edited Feminism and the Final Foucault (2004) and Feminist Politics: Identity, Difference, Agency (2007). Karen Vintges is Lecturer in Social and Political Philosop hy at the Uni­ versity of Amsterdam. She is the author of Philosophy as Passion: The Thinking of Simone de Beauvoir ( 1 996) and several other books in both English and Dutch.

viii

Introduction: Power, freedom and subjectivity Diann a Taylor

Fo ucault the experi m enter

Michel Foucault was not a systematic thinker. He referred to himself as an " experimenter" as opposed to a "theorist" ( 1 9 9 1 a: 27) ;1 eschewed the labelling of his work in terms of existing categories;2 and asserted that "thinking differently" and self-transformation, rather than "vali­ dating what is already known", lay at the core of his philosophical work ( 1 990b: 9 1 0 ) . "I don't feel that it is necessary to know exactly what I am," Foucault states in a 1 982 interview: The main interest in life and work is to become someone else that you were not in the beginning. If you knew when you began a book what you would say at the end, do you think you would have the courage to write it? What is true for writing and for a love rela­ tionship is true also for life. The game is worthwhile insofar as we don't know what will be the end. ( 1 988: 9) In addition to being unsystematic, Foucault's work also challenges fundamental aspects of the Western philosophical tradition. As he sees it, philosophers have exerted much intellectual time and effort and devoted many pages to creating a dualistic and overly simplified worldview that valorizes aspects of human existence that provide us with a false sense of our own ability to gain certainty about the world, and to thereby become masters of it and ourselves. This worldview imbues us with a false and misguided sense of security that, nonethe­ less, because it is preferable to the threat that uncertainty appears to 1

MICHEL FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

pose, ensures the reproduction and eventual systematizing of the same faulty thinking. A principal objective of Foucault's work is to illustrate the historical and contingent nature of what philosophy has traditionally viewed as absolute and universal. In fact, Foucault contends that the very ideas of absolute and universal knowledge and moral values are themselves historical phenomena. Foucault therefore does "not seek to identify the universal structures of all knowledge or of all possible moral action" ( 1 984a: 46). Instead, he conducts an "ontology of the present", a type of philosophical analysis that, on the one hand, seeks to identify the conditions out of which our current forms of knowledge and moral­ ity emerged and which continue to legitimize those forms, while also, and on the other hand, endeavours to "separate out, from the contin­ gency that has made us what we are, the possibility of no longer being, doing, and thinking what we are, do, and think" (ibid. ) . In other words, Foucault investigates how persons in the West have come to be where they currently are, shows that in so far as their current condition is the product of historical development it is not a necessary condition, and enquires into how they might be different. Foucault is specifically con­ cerned with promoting change that counters domination and oppres­ sion and fosters what he refers to as "the work of freedom" (ibid. ) . Some scholars consider Foucault's unsystematic, non-traditional philosophical approach to be a weakness. They contend that the criti­ cal aspects of his work undermine or even prohibit Foucault from being able to promote positive social change through his philosophy. Charles Taylor submits that while the critical aspects of Foucault's work might possess the potential to open onto new and emancipatory modes of thought and existence, the way in which Foucault conceives of the nature and function of modern power undercuts that potential. "There is no truth which can be espoused, defended, rescued against systems of power, " Taylor writes, "[a]nd there is no escape from power into free­ dom" ( 1 986 : 70) . Similarly, Nancy Fraser argues that Foucault might be able to identify and critique problematic aspects of contemporary society, but he cannot provide us with reasons why we ought to reject these aspects. That is, because Foucault's critique encompasses tradi­ tional moral systems, he denies himself recourse to concepts such as "freedom" and "justice", and therefore lacks the ability to generate posi­ tive alternatives (Fraser 1 994) . Jiirgen Habermas suggests that Foucault ultimately recognized that the critical and positive aspects of his work were fundamentally contradictory and therefore returned to a more traditional philosophical approach in his later work. "Perhaps", Hab­ ermas writes, "the force of this contradiction caught up with Foucault, 2

INTRODUCTION: POWER, FREEDO M AND SUBJE CTIVITY

drawing him again into the circle of the philosophical discourse of modernity which he thought he could explode" ( 1 986 : 1 08) .

Th i n ki ng d iffere ntly a bout powe r, freed o m a n d s u bjectivity

Unlike Foucault's critics, the contributors to this volume see Foucault's unconventional philosophical approach as a strength. They reject the view that the critical aspect of his philosophy eclipses its positive and emancipatory potential. Each of the three sections of the book illus­ trates how Foucault reconceptualizes a key philosophical concept power, freedom and subjectivity - and provides examples of how that reconceptualization facilitates new ways of thinking and acting that are able to counter oppression and domination. The essays in Part I of this book show that the view of Foucault's work as merely negative stems from a fundamental misreading of his conceptualization of power. Foucault argues that with the rise of the modern era, the exercise of power in the West takes new forms. In his book Discipline and Punish, he shows that sovereign power, which is held or possessed and then wielded repressively by one individual over another or others, became ineffective in the face of increasingly com­ plex social, political and economic relations that developed in the latter part of the sixteenth and early part of the seventeenth centuries. For example, violent public executions (such as that of Damiens the regi­ cide, which Foucault graphically describes in his book's opening pages) were no longer having the desired effect of displaying the king's power and thereby discouraging criminal acts and ensuring social and political order. Instead, these events were invoking the peoples' rage against the king's authority, thereby promoting social and political unrest. Throughout his work, Foucault analyses the new, "productive" forms of power that emerge as a result of the waning of sovereign power. 3 As Ellen Feder notes in Chapter 4, power is productive in the sense that it consists of "both positive and negative, unstable valuations that can be reversed through history". As the chapters on disciplinary power and biopower show, Foucault conceives of modern power as an interactive network of shifting and changing relations among and between indi­ viduals, groups, institutions and structures; it consists of social, politi­ cal, economic and, as many of the contributors to this volume show, even personal relationships (including our relationships to ourselves) . "I hardly ever use the word 'power' ," Foucault states, " and if I do sometimes, it is always a short cut to the expression I always use : the relationships of power" ( 1 994: 1 1 ) . Given its productive, ubiquitous, 3

MICHEL

FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

dynamic and relational character, the pernicious effects of modern power are more difficult to identify, and therefore to counter, than the sovereign's power to take his subjects' lives in overtly violent and public ways. Like most people in the modern West, Foucault's critics " [remain] attached to a certain image of power-law, of power-sovereignty" ( 1 990a: 90). They therefore see Foucault's contention that "power is everywhere" negating freedom and subjectivity (ibid. : 93 ). Yet this would be the case only if we continue to commit the error of Foucault's critics and insist on conceiving of power only in its sovereign, "repres­ sive" form. "It is this [sovereign notion of power] that we must break free of, " Foucault writes, "if we wish to analyze power within the con­ crete and historical framework of its operation" (ibid. : 90). Analysing the reality of the workings of modern power is crucial. Foucault argues that as long as we continue to adhere to a very limited and increasingly outdated understanding of power we cannot begin to navigate mod­ ern power relations effectively. Uncritical acceptance of anything that is presented as natural, necessary, or ineluctable is problematic from a Foucauldian perspective. Such uncritical acceptance allows power relations to devolve into static states of domination, where only a very limited range of thought and behaviour is deemed valid or acceptable, with the result that many more modes of existence are considered invalid, immoral, or deviant and thereby deserving of social sanction, legal punishment, or eradication. Taking Foucault's analysis of the workings of modern power seri­ ously does not destroy possibilities for freedom and subjectivity. But it does mean that these important concepts need to be reconceptual­ ized. If, as the contributors to this volume believe, Charles Taylor and Nancy Fraser are incorrect in their respective assertions that Foucault's conceptualization of power destroys possibilities for freedom, then what does freedom in fact look like from a Foucauldian perspective ? First of all, if power is not something tangible that one possesses and uses in a repressive manner against others (i.e. the king deploying his power against his subjects), then freedom does not stand in an opposi­ tional relationship to power. As the chapters in Part II show, Foucault does not conceive of power and freedom as opposed ; rather, they are mutually constitutive. "Power is exercised only over free subjects," Foucault asserts, "and only insofar as they are free" ( 1 982a: 22 1 ) . Freedom for Foucault i s not a state w e occupy, but rather a practice that we undertake. Specifically, it is the practice of navigating power relations in ways that keep them open and dynamic and which, in doing so, allow for the development of new, alternative modes of 4

INTRODUCTION: POWER, FREEDOM AND S UBJECTIVITY

thought and existence. The practice of freedom functions to " [discon­ nect] the growth of capabilities . . . from the intensification of power relations" ( 1 984a: 48) . During an interview, Foucault explains the relationship between power and freedom, and how engaging in the practice of freedom keeps power relations dynamic: What does it mean to exercise power? It does not mean picking up this tape recorder and throwing it on the ground. I have the capac­ ity to do so . . . [bJut I would not be exercising power if I did that. However, if I take this tape recorder and throw it on the ground - in order to make you mad or so that you can't repeat what I've said, or to put pressure on you so that you'll behave in such and such a way, or to intimidate you - Good, what I've done, by shap­ ing your behavior through certain means, that is power . . . [I]f . . . that is to say, I'm not forcing you at all and I'm leaving you com­ pletely free - that's when I begin to exercise power. It's clear that power should not be defined as a constraining act of violence that represses individuals, forcing them to do something or preventing them from doing some other thing. But it takes place when there is a relation between two free subjects, and this relation is unbal­ anced, so that one can act upon the other, and the other is acted upon, or allows himself to be acted upon. ( 1980g) If Foucault throws the tape recorder to the ground to shape the behaviour of the interviewer, the interviewer can respond in any number of ways : he can appease Foucault in order to finish the inter­ view (without the use of tape recorder) ; he can refuse to conduct the interview on Foucault's terms and simply terminate it; he can simply appear to complete the interview on Foucault's terms, and then write whatever he originally intended to (or even include some uncompli­ mentary remarks about Foucault) . The point here is that although the relationship is not equal, the interviewer is free in so far as he can respond to and in turn attempt to influence Foucault's actions. The interviewer does not exist in a state of domination where no response to Foucault's actions is possible. As mentioned previously, "effective" navigation of power relations involves critically analysing our present conditions in order to identify norms and practices that reinforce the status quo to the point where prevailing modes of thought and existence come to be seen as given, as what must be. It also entails thinking and acting in ways that do not simply reinscribe prevailing, narrowly defined terms of what it is 5

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

possible and acceptable to think and do. If, as Foucault argues, power relations are continually shifting and changing, then we must continue to analyse our present critically: practices that facilitate our navigation of power relations in one context or at a certain point in time may not be effective in other situations or contexts. While the interviewer may be able to appease Foucault by agreeing to Foucault's terms, this action might not be effective in a different interview situation. Some other interviewee might, for example, lose respect for an interviewer who immediately gives in to her demands and decide to terminate the interview herself. It is no accident, then, that Foucault characterizes freedom as "ongoing work". Just as Foucault p osits a relationship between power and freedom, so does he also conceive of a relationship between power and sub­ jectivity. In a late text, Foucault emphasizes that although he is best known as an analyst of power, subjectivity has in fact been his primary concern. "My objective", he writes, " . . . has been to create a history of the different modes by which, in our culture, human beings are made into subjects" ( 1 982a: 208) . What does Foucault mean when he says that human beings are "made into" subjects? As the chapters in Part III illustrate, part of what he means is that the idea of "the subject" is itself a historical construction. Foucault explicitly states that "the subject" is a "form" as opposed to a "substance" ( 1 9 94 : 1 0) . Within the context of the Western philosophical tradition, "a subject" takes the form of an active agent, an individual "rational being", to use Immanuel Kant's terminology, that thinks about and acts upon the world (which takes the form of an "object") and is a bearer of political rights and moral responsibilities. This understanding of what it means to be a subject (and, therefore, the specifics of the distinction between and opposition of subject and object) is perhaps most explicit within Enlightenment thinking, but its roots may be traced as far back as the work of Plato. Foucault devoted several of his College de France courses to analysing the different forms that subjectivity acquired in ancient, Hellenistic and early Christian contexts (see Foucault 1 999a; 2005a) . In doing so, he illustrates and provides support for his argu­ ment that subjectivity is a social, cultural and historical form rather than a pre-given "substance" that is outside of and therefore distinct from sociocultural norms and values. By illustrating the sociohistorical character of a concept that is taken within the tradition of Western philosophy to be objective and neutral, Foucault helps us to see the extent to which the idea of being a subject is implicated in power relations. Remember that, for Foucault, power is productive: certain power relations give rise 6

INTRODUCTION: POWER, FREEDOM AND S UBJECTIVITY

to or produce the definition of subjectivity presented in the previ­ ous paragraph, relations which that definition effectively masks. Thus, while all rational beings are purported to be subjects, the reality of the situation is that the Enlightenment understanding of subjectiv­ ity excluded a wide group of people, including, for example, women and the people of lands that had been colonized by white European men. 4 Foucault further illustrates the degree to which subjectivity is implicated in relations of power when he analyses the production of different categories of subjects, as well as the processes by which we as individuals construct ourselves in, through and in opposition to those categories. Focusing on the modern era, Foucault illustrates how the emergence of the human sciences (psychology, anthropol­ ogy, sociology, biology, psychiatry) during the eighteenth century both solidified the Enlightenment understanding of subjectivity and gave birth to a plethora of new subject categories: human beings have now become both the subjects and objects of their own knowledge. In Vol­ ume I of The History of Sexuality, for example, Foucault shows how the fields of psychology and psychiatry categorized a whole range of human behaviours as sexually deviant, thereby producing a multitude of new modes of subjectivity that allow for (if not demand) social intervention into the population intended to distinguish "normal" from "abnormal" behaviour, encouraging the former and inhibiting (or even eradicating) the latter. But, as noted above, Foucault also makes clear that subjectivity is not simply imposed externally. We take up and occupy the subject positions that our sociohistorical context makes available to us : sub­ jects are not only made, we make ourselves. And, as contributors to this volume show, in so far as we make ourselves, we can unmake ourselves, or make ourselves differently: we can use the norms and values of our society in new ways, work on creating totally new forms of subjectivity, or even dispense with "the subject" as a mode of exist­ ence. "Maybe the target nowadays is not to discover what we are," Foucault writes, "but to refuse what we are. We have to imagine and build up what we could be to get rid of this kind of political 'double bind,' which is the simultaneous individualization and totalization of modern power structures" ( 1 982a: 2 1 6) . By showing that subjectiv­ ity itself is a sociohistorical phenomenon, as well as by illustrating oppressive effects of prevailing notions of subjectivity, Foucault makes clear that experimenting with being other than what we currently are is not only possible but also an integral part of navigating power rela­ tions in a way that both constitutes and in turn promotes the practice of freedom. 7

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

Risky b u s i n ess

Armed with an accurate understanding of Foucault's conceptualization of power and, therefore, of the ways in which freedom and subjectivity are not opposed to but rather interconnected with and implicated in power relations, Foucault's emphasis on experimenting and thinking differently begins to make sense, and the positive ethical and political potential of his work begins to take shape as well. Foucault's analyses of power, freedom and subjectivity make clear that not being able to rely uncritically upon existing norms and values in order to gain access to absolute truths about ourselves and the world in which we live, or to provide us with a moral code we can uncritically follow, does not leave us either in a state of epistemological and moral nihilism, or trapped within a perpetual state of domination. Rather, as Foucault readily admits, taking his work seriously places us in an oppositional posi­ tion relative to prevailing modes of thought and existence and thereby deprives us of "access to any complete and definitive knowledge" of both the world in which we live and the "limits" of our ability to know and act within that world (Foucault 1 984a: 47) . We are, as he puts it, "always in the position of beginning again" (ibid. ). Perhaps part of what troubles Foucault's critics about the position in which he leaves us is that it offers no guarantees and it requires much of us. No one tells us how to perform the work of freedom. While Foucault may offer us some "tools", we must figure out the use to which we will put those tools. We must critically analyse our present, identify oppressive norms and practices and figure out how we may counter those norms and practices: simply telling us what to think and do would undermine the emancipatory aspects of Foucault's work. Moreover, Foucault encourages us to reflect critically upon why it is that we desire someone else to tell us what to think and what to do, why we believe that we must have absolute and universal norms and stand­ ards that dictate our thoughts and actions, as well as upon the effects of that desire. What is perceived by his critics as Foucault's inability to provide norms and standards by which to think and live thus needs to be seen instead as a refusal to do so. What would it mean for us to begin to think and act differently, to "seek out in our reflection those things that have never been thought or imagined" (Foucault 1 980g) ? "What is good", Foucault tells us, is something that comes through innovation. The good does not exist . . . in an atemporal sky, with people who would be like the Astrologers of the Good, whose j ob it is to determine what is 8

INTRODUCTION: POWER, FREEDOM AND S UBJECTIVITY

the favorable nature of the stars. The good is defined by us, it is practiced, it is invented. And this is a collaborative work. (Ibid. )

N otes 1. Foucault states: "Each new work profoundly changes the terms of thinking which I had reached with the p revious work. In this sense I consider myself more an experimenter than a theorist; I don't develop deductive systems to apply uniformly in different fields of research. When I write, I do it above all to change myself and not to think the same thing as before" ( 1 9 9 1 a : 27). 2. "I have never been a Freudian, I have never been a Marxist, and I have never been a structuralist" (Foucault 1 990c: 22) . 3. Foucault makes clear that sovereign power does not disappear completely with the rise of modernity. See Foucault ( 1 9 9 1 b) . 4. Many feminists and philosophers from a diversity o f racial and ethnic back­ grounds have argued that to the extent that the enlightenment notion of sub­ jectivity continues to be adhered to it continues to produce oppressive effects.

9

PA R T I

Power

ONE

Foucault's theory of power Richard A. Lynch

An important step in understanding Foucault's broader projects is to understand his view of power.1 Foucault's analyses of power are simul­ taneously articulated at two levels, the empirical and the theoretical. The first level is constituted by a detailed examination of historically specific modes of power and how these modes emerged out of earlier forms. Hence, he identifies modern forms of power, such as the closely related modes he termed "disciplinary power" and "biopower", and earlier, premodern forms such as "sovereign power" . Indeed, much of his work on power is devoted to the task of articulating the emergence of later modes of power from earlier ones, and his analyses of disciplinary power in particular have been especially useful for subsequent scholars. Three very simple examples can illustrate these forms of power. First, imagine a pyramid, with a king at the top, his ministers in the middle and the king's subjects (the people) at the bottom. If the king issues an edict, then his ministers will execute the order, imposing it upon the king's subjects. Traditionally, power has been understood as "being at the top of the pyramid" ; and that was all that it was understood to be. But Foucault expands (indeed, totally reconceives) what constitutes power, and shows how this traditional view can be situated within a fuller understanding. He observed that in actual fact, power arises in all kinds of relationships, and can be built up from the bottom of a pyramid (or any structure). Thus, an academic transcript, the record of a student's courses and performance, becomes an instrument of power (how many times have you been told that "this will go on your per­ manent record " ? ) , but begins from observation at the bottom of the pyramid, not from an edict from the top. Each and every student has a 13

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

transcript, and this record of their performance, the fact that each one is observed (and not that the school has a principal), is what influences students' behaviour. The academic transcript is an instrument of dis­ ciplinary power : it serves to make a student regulate or discipline her own performance and behaviour. Similarly, observing which groups in the population are most likely to contract a disease (such as lung can­ cer) can lead to a discovery of its causes (cigarette smoking, or asbestos exposure). Like academic transcripts, this third kind of power - in this case to save lives, by eliminating asbestos or smoke inhalation - does not require a "top of the pyramid" to function. But unlike an academic transcript, this kind of power does not directly address particular indi­ viduals, but rather groups of people and populations as a whole. This third example is an illustration of what Foucault calls "biopower". The second level of Foucault's analyses (the "theoretical" level) tran­ scends historical particularities and is common to the diverse modes of power that Foucault has described. It is at this level that we can grasp the most general and fundamental features of power and its operation, and so we would do well to approach Foucault's work from this theoretical perspective. Foucault's most explicit thinking about power developed in the 1 970s, particularly in two published works, Discipline and Punish ( 1 9 75 ) and La Volante de Savoir ( 1 976, translated as The History of Sex­ uality, Volume I: An Introduction), as well as his courses at the College de France between 1 974 and 1 979 . We will focus upon his most con­ densed and generalized presentation of power, Part Four of La Volante de Savoir, to accomplish three tasks. First, we will be able to grasp why Foucault's analyses can be called a "theory" of power. Second, we will identify the mistaken theories of power that his analysis is meant to sup­ plant: the theories against which he is arguing. Third, we will be able to articulate the basic characteristics of power according to Foucault's theory: a network of force relations throughout society, relations that are characterized by resistance and which interact by means of local tac­ tics and larger strategies. Since these characteristics serve to describe not only modern forms of power such as disciplinary power, but also earlier forms, they represent the substance of Foucault's theory of power.

A "theory" of power

What we can call a "theory" of power emerges from Foucault's mid1 970s analyses of psychiatry, the prison and sexuality. This theory is not restricted to descriptions of one empirical period or "regime", but 14

FOU CAULT'S THEORY O F POWER

describes certain general characteristics of power and its operation, across historical epochs and periods. Foucault disliked the term "theory". He noted in La Volante de Savoir that "The aim of the inquiries that will follow is to move less toward a 'theory ' of power than toward an 'analytics' of power . . . " (1990a: 8 2 ; w e will soon s e e how this sentence ends). Foucault emphasized analysis over theory in part because he was reluctant to make any claim to a permanent or complete understanding of the world in which we live. In his 1976 College de France course, Foucault explained at least part of his distrust for theory: "the question 'What is power?' is obviously a theoretical question that would provide an answer to everything, which is just what I don't want to do" (2006a: 13 ). It is only in so far as theories can be used "untheoretically" in this sense - that is, without claiming to answer everything that they can be valuable. Nevertheless, he did refer to his own project as a theory: his task "is a question of forming a different grid of historical decipherment by starting from a different theory of power" (1990a: 90-91, emphasis added) .2 For Foucault, then, the term "theory" must be used with caution; we should embrace theory only in the sense of "a theoretical production that does not need a visa from some common regime to establish its validity" (ibid. : 6 ) . With this terminological caution in mind, I shall use the term "the­ ory " in an experimental sense: a theory is a hypothesis to organize diverse data, but also to be tested and revised or abandoned in light of that data. That a theory aims to be more general than a description of a single historical period or epoch is an essential part of its value and usefulness for our understanding of the phenomena it encompasses, and it is for these reasons that the term remains a useful term with respect to Foucault's analyses of power. Such a theory does not "answer eve­ rything" ; its warrant comes from the empirical data that it organizes and that supports it, and it is subject to revision. Foucault's theory of power suggests that power is omnipresent, that is, power can be found in all social interactions. As he put this in 1977, "it seems to me that power is 'always already there', that one is never 'outside' it" (19 8 0 e : 141) . That power is omnipresent - that is, that power is co-extensive with the field of social relations; that power is interwoven with and revealed in other kinds of social relations - does not mean that power functions as a trap or cage, only that it is present in all of our social relations, even our most intimate and egalitarian. 3 Nor is Foucault saying that all relations reduce to, or consist of nothing other than, power relations.4 Power does not "consolidate everything" or "embrace everything" or "answer everything" ; power alone may not be adequate to explain all, or every aspect of, social relations. So 15

MICHEL

FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

Foucault's theoretical task (and the conclusion of the sentence we left earlier) is to work "toward an 'analytics' of power: that is, toward a definition of the specific domain formed by relations of power, and toward a determination of the instruments that will make possible its analysis" (1990a: 8 2 ) . H ow not t o u n dersta n d power

Foucault first distinguishes his own theory from three mistaken, inad­ equate or misleading conceptions of power (each of which corresponds to a tradition or school of social thought, as I note below in brackets) . [T]he word power is apt to lead to a number of misunderstandings - misunderstandings with respect to its nature, its form, and its unity. By power, I do not mean "Power" as a group of institutions and mechanisms that ensure the subservience of the citizens of a given state [such as characterize many liberal analyses] . By power, I do not mean, either, a mode of subjugation which, in contrast to violence, has the form of the rule [typical of psychoanalytic approaches] . Finally, I do not have in mind a general system of domination exerted by one group over another [i.e. class oppres­ sion] , a system whose effects, through successive derivations, per­ vade the entire social body [as in many Marxist views] . (1990a: 92) Foucault's worry is not that these analyses are entirely useless, but that they often mischaracterize an accidental feature of power in a particular context as an essential characteristic of power in general. The analysis, made in terms of power, must not assume that the sovereignty of the state [liberal] , the form of the law [psychoana­ lytic] , or the over-all unity of a domination [Marxist] are given at the outset; rather, these are only the terminal forms power takes. (Ibid., my comments in brackets) So each of these forms of power (sovereignty, law, domination) may in fact be present in certain contexts as terminal forms, but none are fundamental. And Foucault's first task in understanding power is there­ fore to develop a new method - based on a richer theory - that begins with the basic molecules of power relations and then builds to more complex forms. 16

FOU CAULT'S THEORY O F POWER

The most important misconception is what Foucault terms a "juridico­ discursive" understanding of power. This misconception, "deeply rooted in the history of the West", is common to many "political analyses of power" (ibid. : 8 3 ) and approaches to sexuality. His argument is that this misconception, so generally accepted, has functioned as a mask by which much of the actual operation of power is obscured, thereby making many of the actual mechanisms of power tolerable (ibid. : 8 6) . According t o this "juridico-discursive" theory, power has five prin·­ cipal characteristics : first, power always operates negatively, that is, by means of interdictions. Second, power always takes the form of a rule or law. This entails a binary system of permitted and forbidden, legal and illegal. These two characteristics together constitute the third: power operates through a cycle of prohibition, a law of interdiction. Hence (and fourth), this power manifests in three forms of prohibi­ tion - "affirming that such a thing is not permitted, preventing it from being said, denying that it exists" (ibid. : 84) - which reveal a logic of censorship. Fifth and finally, the apparatus of this power is universal and uniform in its mode of operation : From top to bottom, in its over-all decisions and its capillary inter­ ventions alike, whatever the devices or institutions on which it relies, it acts in a uniform and comprehensive manner; it operates according to the simple and endlessly reproduced mechanism of (Ibid.) law, taboo, and censorship. Notice how Foucault has characterized this uniformity, "in its over­ all decisions and its capillary interventions alike". Implicit in this char­ acterization is a distinction between macro-structures (the "over-all decisions") and micro-practices ("capillary interventions") : a distinc­ tion that will be very important in the development of Foucault's own understanding of power. Recall our opening illustrations: a transcript would be a "capillary intervention", whereas epidemiological studies of cancer rates reflect macro-patterns. Foucault's analysis begins at the micro-level (in Discipline and Punish, for example) and is modified as it encompasses the macro--level (especially in the 1978 and 1979 College de France courses) . 5 That this distinction is not made in the "juridico-discursive" view is just another indication of how it differs from Foucault's own analysis, and how it is mistaken about, and masks, the actual operation of power. Why does Foucault term this view a "juridico-discursive" represen­ tation of power ? First, it is juridical because it is modelled upon law, upon prohibition: "it is a power [more precisely a representation of 17

MICHEL FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

power] whose model is essentially juridical, centered on nothing more than the statement of the law and the operation of taboos" (ibid. : 85 ) . But a s Foucault makes clear, the actual operation o f power cannot be reduced to one model - the law, the state, or domination - but instead functions in a variety of forms and with varying means or techniques. Second, according to this view, power is essentially discursive: its prohibitions are tied together with what one can say as much as what one can do; in this way restrictions on language should also function as restrictions upon reality and action - this is the heart of the "logic of censorship" (ibid. : 84 ). While this view emphasizes discourse as the primary arena in which power's effects manifest, Foucault notes that discourses are related to power in much more complicated ways than this view would suggest: "Discourses are not once and for all subservi­ ent to power or raised up against it . . . discourse can be both an instru­ ment and an effect of power, but also a hindrance, a stumbling-block, a point of resistance and a starting point for an opposing strategy" (ibid. : 100-101) . Let us consider another example to illustrate this "juridico-discursive" view of power: is what you are wearing today an effect of power rela­ tions ? If you picked your clothes to conform to a dress code (skirts must fall below the knee, no profanity on T-shirts, etc.), then your choices can be explained by a "juridico-discursive" account: a prohibi­ tory, discursive law specified what you could or could not wear. Within those rules, on that view, your choices were presumably made without external interference. But when we look more closely, this view is not correct: a number of other, "capillary " (your friends) and "macro" (fashion) as well as extra-legal power relations have almost certainly shaped your choices of what to wear. Foucault's own theory of power is meant to replace these "juridico-discursive" accounts: It is this image that we must break free of, that is, of the theoreti­ cal privilege of law and sovereignty, if we wish to analyze power within the concrete and historical framework of its operation. We must construct an analytics of power that no longer takes law as (Ibid. : 9 0) a model and a code .

A Fouca u ld i a n view of power

It is time now for us to turn to this constructive task, and begin to articulate Foucault's own positive understanding of power. Foucault's self-described task is to use empirical analyses to discover a new theory 18

FOU CAULT'S THEORY O F POWER

of power, which will in turn provide a new framework for (and the hypotheses to be tested in) subsequent historical analyses (Foucault 199 0a: 90-91) . He begins : It seems to me that power must be understood in the first instance as [1] the multiplicity of force relations immanent in the sphere in which they operate and which constitute their own organization; as [2] the process which, through ceaseless struggles and confron­ tations, transforms, strengthens, or reverses them; as [3] the sup­ port which these force relations find in one another, thus forming a chain or a system, or on the contrary, the disjunctions and con­ tradictions which isolate them from one another; and lastly, as [4] the strategies in which they take effect, whose general design or institutional crystallization is embodied in the state apparatus, in the formulation of the law, in the various social hegemonies. (Ibid. : 92-3 , my numerals) There is much to unpack in this sentence . The bracketed numbers indicate four principal aspects of Foucault's initial definition. We have a set of "force relations", processes by which these relations are trans­ formed, systems or disjunctions that are constituted by the interplay of these force relations, and larger strategies (or "terminal forms") with general and institutional characteristics that emerge from these rela­ tions, processes and systems. He begins at the micro-level, looking at local relations of force rather than at the macro-level of hegemonies and states, which can only be fully understood as functions of the local relations. In other words, Foucault begins with individuals' behaviours and interactions ("local relations" like academic transcripts, or choices of what to wear), to see how larger patterns, and eventually national norms or regulations, grow out of them. First, then, power must be understood at the micro-level as relations of force. Foucault is unambiguous on this point: "It is in this sphere of force relations that we must try to analyze the mechanisms of power" (ibid. : 97). But what are these "force relations" at the basis of power ? With this term, Foucault makes an explicit analogy to physics; he refers on numerous occasions, for example, to the "micro-physics of power " (1979 : 2 6 ; 199 0a: 16). 6 Force relations seem t o b e the basic unit, the undefined or given, in this approach to power. Very broadly, force rela­ tions consist of whatever in one's social interactions that pushes, urges or compels one to do something. We can use the analogy to help us understand this notion of force relations as the basic unit of power. In Newtonian p hysics, force is 19

MICHEL FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

defined as mass times acceleration. Force is thus the extent to which a body will be put into motion: larger objects (greater mass) will require a greater force to begin moving; a greater force will also be necessary to make an object move more quickly (greater acceleration) . The impor­ tant point here is that "force" is whatever serves to put an object into motion, regardless of the origin or source of that force. Force may be introduced by gravity, magnetism, or some other means. Its action thus can be described independently of any particular agent or object as the "creator" of that force. Analogously, Foucault speaks of power relations in terms of force relations without reference to a source or agent. This suggests that Foucault does not mean to imply that individuals cannot act as agents within power relations, but rather to draw our attention, especially for methodological reasons, to the force relations as such rather than to agents or actors. Closer examination of the characteristics of these force relations should help to make this clearer. To recall, Foucault began with the claim that "power must be under­ stood in the first instance as the multiplicity of force relations immanent in the sphere in which they operate and which constitute their own organization" (1990a: 92). Three features of these force relations are thus delineated, as follows. First, that there is a multiplicity means that we will find many dif­ ferent relations of force, intersecting and overlapping, in our social interactions. What is more, this multiplicity suggests that these force relations will not all be of the same quality or kind: there will be mul­ tiple sorts of force relations, which may have different particular char­ acteristics or impacts. To draw on the analogy to physics again, we could say that different forces will be present in the same field, as are gravity and magnetism, and that some of these forces will be stronger than others, and some stronger in certain contexts but not in others. To make this more concrete, recall (or imagine) yourself as a high school student, and consider what you chose to wear to school each day. You probably considered a number of different perspectives - or relations of force : what will my best friends say ? Will a certain special someone think I look "cool" or "geeky " if she or he sees me in this ? (Indeed, what constitutes "cool" or "geeky " is defined through mul­ tiple overlapping relations.) What "group" (the "popular" set, jocks, brains, punks, skaters, etc.) does dressing like this put me in? Is it fash­ ionable ? What will my parents and teachers think? Is it in accord with the school's official dress code ? Most or all of these questions probably influenced your choice - whether you aimed to please or annoy any particular one of these groups - and they represent the very different, but intersecting relations within which you decide what to wear. 20

FOU CAULT'S THEORY O F POWER

What sort of presence do these relations have then? The second fea­ ture delineated in this description is that force relations are "immanent in the sphere in which they operate" . That these relations are "immanent" means that they exist only within a certain domain or discourse. In other words, they are not concrete, like bodies, but incorporeal, like the laws of physics. They are nevertheless genuinely present - and, like laws, their presence can be felt in very concrete ways. The analogy to physics is again useful here. As physical bodies interact, they exert relations of gravity, magnetism and so on upon each other. Similarly, social interac­ tions are constantly permeated by these relations of force, power rela­ tions. Foucault thus describes force relations as a "substrate" : "it is the moving substrate of force relations which, by virtue of their inequality, constantly engender states of power, but the latter are always local and unstable" (ibid. : 93 ) . He notes in the 1976 College de France course that "power is never anything more than a relationship that can, and must, be studied only by looking at the interplay of the terms of the relation­ ship" (2006a: 168).7 This means that power relations are not outside but rather "immanent in" other kinds (economic, knowledge, sexual) of rela­ tionships (1990a: 94). So "power is not an institution [or] a structure", nor an individual capacity, but rather a complex arrangement of forces in society (ibid. : 9 3 ) . Excepting an explicit dress code, none of the ques­ tions we asked above about what to wear could be answered institution­ ally, but they all have a significant impact on your status in school. And we are all quite aware of them, at least implicitly. Your choices of what to wear thus reveal "a complex strategical situation [how you want to be perceived by various groups] in a particular society [your school] " . And so your self-presentation has been shaped by power relations. This has an important corollary: power is omnipresent (as discussed above) "because it is produced from one moment to the next, at every point, or rather in every relation from one point to another. Power is everywhere ; not because it embraces everything, but because it comes from everywhere" (ibid. : 9 3 ) . It even shapes our choices of how to dress on a daily basis. So there is a multiplicity of force relations, which are immanent in social interactions. The third feature in this initial characterization is that these force relations "constitute their own organization" . On the one hand, these force relations "are the immediate effects of the divi­ sions, inequalities, and disequilibriums which occur in [other types of relationships] " (ibid. : 94) . But on the other hand, If in fact [force relations] are intelligible, this is not because they are the effect of another instance that "explains" them, but rather because they are imbued, through and through, with calculation: 21

M I CHEL FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

there is no power that is exercised without a series of aims and objectives. (Ibid.: 94-5 ) Each school has its own distribution of social groups or cliques, with inequalities and occasionally shifting alliances. These calculations, these aims and objectives, which Foucault will refer to as tactics and strategy, constitute the internal organization of power relations. Several other propositions also emerge from this core understand­ ing of power. Foucault delineates five. First, since power emerges in relationships and interactions, power is not possessed, but exercised. "It is not the 'privilege,' acquired or preserved, of the dominant class, but the overall effect of its strategic positions" (ibid. : 26). At stake here are two competing models of power : one based on a contract (pos­ session), the other based on perpetual battle (strategies or war). As he notes in Discipline and Punish, his analysis of power "presupposes that the power exercised on the body is conceived not as a property, but as a strategy . . . that one should take as its model a perpetual battle rather than a contract regulating a transaction or the conquest of a territory" (19 79 : 26). Second, reiterating the point about immanence, power relations are not exterior to other relations. Third, "power comes from below; that is, there is no binary and all­ encompassing opposition between rulers and ruled at the root of power relations and serving as a general matrix" (199 0a: 94). So power is not reducible to a binary relationship (we cannot reduce all sorts of power to one model) ; furthermore, power comes from below (as discussed above, a multiplicity of power relations exist; power emerges from a variety of overlapping and intertwined relationships rather than from a sovereign individual). That power comes from below means we cannot best understand power by looking at monarchies or states, at the top of any chain of command. Rather, we must look at the complex webs of interwoven relationships : what Foucault calls the "microphysics" of power (1979 : 26). Power develops in the first instance in specific, local, individual choices, behaviours and interactions. These combine in myriad ways to constitute larger social patterns, and eventually yield macroforms, which one typically thinks of when one thinks about "power" (socie­ ties, states, kings) - just as everyday objects are constituted by atoms and molecules. We thus have a micro-level of individuals (disciplinary techniques of the body) and a macro-level of populations (biopolitics). Fourth of the five propositions that emerge from Foucault's concep­ tion of power is that "power relations are both intentional and nonsub­ jective" (1990a: 94) . This juxtaposition is, frankly, puzzling, and this 22

FOU CAULT'S THEORY O F POWER

claim has led to a fair amount of misunderstanding about Foucault's analysis. First, power is intentional : power relations are "imbued, through and through, with calculation: there is no power that is exer­ cised without a series of aims and objectives" (ibid. : 95). What you wear says much about you, and your status at school - not to mention your broader socioeconomic status (not everyone can afford designer labels) -and you have intentionally chosen to communicate a number of mes­ sages with your clothing. Foucault refers to these aims and objectives as "tactics" and "strategies", and notes that these are what constitute its "rationality" . But power, he insists here, is also nonsubjective : "But this does not mean that it results from the choice or decision of an individual subject" (ibid.: 95). Nor, he continues, can it be located in groups such as economic decision makers, governing castes or the state apparatus. No one student, or social caste, or administrator can control what will be "cool" or "loser". Indeed, what is "cool" today could be "out" tomor­ row, and an out-group can rise in prestige (or vice versa) . The problem here, the apparent paradox, is that according to Foucault's description, power has to be exercised by someone or some­ thing, but if it is nonsubjective, there cannot be a "someone" exercising that power. Foucault seems to be erasing agency individuals' capacity to choose and act for themselves or rather, locating this capacity to act in a noncorporeal "power" rather than in individuals and institutions. It is as if "power", not you, decides what you are wearing today. I think this problem can be resolved with two observations. First, part of his point here is that the effects of the exercise of power reach beyond any individual's (or group's) intentions or control. As we have already seen, Foucault is arguing against the view that "the state" acts as a monolith, and he is arguing for the importance of micro-events, with their rip­ ples and interactions, in order to understand macro-phenomena. This means that local actions often have unintended macro-consequences, and that one's control of macro-processes will always be limited and incomplete. Macro-phenomena result from the concatenation of many micro-events, but they are not the direct result of any particular individual action or choice. This is, then, an argument for a system­ level, rather than individual-level, understanding of power relations. Foucault's distinction between tactics and strategy parallels this micro/ macro distinction. Tactics are local, micro (individual choices about what to wear today) ; and strategies are macro, systemic (school- or culture-wide understandings of "cool" and "uncool"). The second observation to be made here is a logical one. To under­ stand subjectivity as constituted (in part) through power relations is not to deny that subjects can act intentionally. You still choose what you'll 23

MICHEL FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

wear each day, even if those choices are conditioned and limited by the "strategical situation" in which you find yourself. Given this problem, the status of subjectivity will become a focal point of Foucault's investi­ gations in later years. It is an important point, because one of the funda­ mental questions for ethical action has to do with the individual's ability to make decisions that are not "merely " determined by the relations of power in which they emerge - in other words, a question of freedom. This question may in fact lie at the heart of readers' varied reactions to Foucault's analyses. Those who understand the claim that individuals are constituted by power relations to constitute a denial of freedom find his vision to be bleak. Those of us, on the other hand, who find in his analyses the tools with which to increase our self-awareness, and hence our own freedom, hear wellsprings of hope in his discussion of the con­ tinuous transformations of power through history. (Understanding how "cool" comes to be defined and how certain groups are "cooler" than others, one can - perhaps even through one's choice of clothes - begin to break free of or even redefine these categories and groups.) At a mini­ mum, on the latter view, if power relations are in fact best understood as a necessarily ongoing battle, then the battle is never utterly lost. Indeed, Foucault seems to anticipate this objection, this worry about freedom, in the fifth of five propositions that he discusses here. Power is always accompanied by resistance; resistance is in fact a fundamental structural feature of power: "Where there is power, there is resistance, and yet, or rather consequently, this resistance is never in a position of exteriority in relation to power" (1990a: 9 5 ) . Without resistance, without two bodies (or minds) pushing or pulling against each other, there is no power relation. And through resistance, power relations can always be altered. This fifth point encapsulates each of the preceding four. Power is exercised (first proposition) in the very interplay of force and resistance; this interplay is present in all social interactions (second proposition) ; force and resistance are manifest even in micro-interactions between individuals as well as states (third proposition) ; and while each person may choose to apply force or resist, the ultimate outcome of the relation cannot be controlled by one party (power is intentional and nonsubjec­ tive - fourth proposition) . On the role of resistance in constituting power, Foucault's position will not change. In a 198 4 interview, for example, Foucault reiterates that "in the relations of power, there is necessarily the possibility of resistance, for if there were no possibility of resistance - of violent resistance, of escape, of ruse, of strategies that reverse the situation there would be no relations of power" (1994: 12) . He adds that "there 24

FOU CAULT'S THEORY O F POWER

cannot be relations of power unless the subjects are free . . . [I]f there are relations of power throughout every social field it is because there is freedom everywhere" (ibid. : 12) . Let us stop for a moment and recall where we are in the discussion. We began this section with a long quotation, in which Foucault identi­ fied four principal aspects of power. 8 Our discussion so far has focused on explicating only the first of these, that power consists of multiple force relations. (We have covered a good deal of ground along the way. Indeed, we have implicitly addressed the other three aspects of power.) The second aspect that Foucault identifies here is that these force relations are processes, not static, and are constantly being transformed. These transformations take the form of ceaseless struggles and con­ frontations - between the original force and its accompanying resist­ ance - and sometimes strengthen the power relations, but sometimes weaken or reverse it. These processes also produce a number of interre­ lationships and systems, as various power relations reinforce or under­ mine each other (third aspect). Here Foucault introduces a distinction between tactics and strategy: tactics are the local rationalities of power in particular cases; strategies, on the other hand, are the larger systemic or global patterns of power. And (fourth aspect) these strategies are built out of combinations and concatenations of those local tactics. [T]he rationality of power is characterized by tactics that are often quite explicit at the restricted level where they are inscribed . . . tactics which, becoming connected to one another, attracting and propagating one another, but finding their base of support and their condition elsewhere, end by forming comprehensive (1990a: 9 5 ) systems. These comprehensive systems, or strategies, constitute "institutional crystallizations" out of the interaction and combination of locally fluid power relations, and become recognizable terminal forms like the state and the other types he enumerated. The movement of Foucault's analysis here is from the micro-level to the macro, from the molecular to the everyday - from (1) specific, individual force relations through (2) their processes of transforma­ tion and (3 ) the networks or systems that their interplay produces, to (4) their larger, strategic manifestations in the state, the law and other hegemonies, such as ownership of the means of production. In the end-forms that Foucault identifies here, we should recognize the three traditions of analysis that Foucault earlier criticized as partial and inade­ quate (liberalism, psychoanalysis, Marxism) . Even though each of these 25

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

strategies may be one-dimensional, the networks of power taken in sum are multi-dimensional and cannot be reduced to only one strategic mode, "juridico-discursive" or otherwise. Foucault's point is that while they may have adequately described some particular strategy (or termi­ nal form) of power, each approach fails to grasp the fundamental form or operation of power at the molecular level. But as Foucault reminds us again, analysis of power must begin not with these end-forms, but with "the moving substrate of force relations which, by virtue of their inequality, constantly engender states of power " (ibid. : 93 ) . Observing power in its local and peripheral effects provides a new viewpoint from which to begin a study of power, and will thus entail a new methodo­ logical approach : the theory of power that we have just outlined.

An ongoi ng project

To review, we have unpacked a dozen or so dense pages at the heart of La Valonte de Savoir. What we have discussed provides only a basic framework : a set of theoretical presuppositions that constitutes the heart of Foucault's theory of power. There are important elements of this theory that we have not discussed, and many aspects of Foucault's analysis of power would continue to evolve over the next decade, as Foucault's ongoing self-critique continued. This basic framework, how­ ever, is consistent throughout the theory's subsequent development and elaboration.

N otes 1. Special thanks to David Cylkowski, Stacy Klingler and Dianna Taylor for their very thoughtful responses to earlier versions of this essay. 2. The French original is at Foucault ( 1 976: 1 20): "en se dormant une autre theorie du pouvoir". 3 . These are not necessarily the same relationships. 4. Lynch ( 1 9 9 8 ) gives a fuller discussion of Foucault's view of the omnipresence of power. 5. For more on this shift, see Lynch (2009). 6 . We must be careful not to make too much of the analogy to physics; I do not think, for example, that Foucault means that analysis of social relations should be reduced to equations of force relations. Given this caution, however, we can note certain implications of the analogy. 7. In this passage, Foucault is making an observation about Henri de Boulainvil­ liers' eighteenth-century history of France. But his point here, in fact, speaks to Foucault's own methodology. 8 . On page 1 9 , above. 26

TWO

Disciplinary power Marcelo Hoffman

Michel Foucault's Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, pub­ lished in 197 5, contains his most famous and elaborate exposition of disciplinary power. A bird's-eye view of his preceding and succeed­ ing analyses reveals, however, that this concept arose in overlapping stages and served a variety of purposes. From roughly 1973 to 1976, in analyses of punishment, proto-psychiatry, criminology and race war, Foucault attempted to articulate disciplinary power in contradistinction to sovereign power. From about 1976 to 1979, he used disciplinary power as a springboard for delineating modalities of power concerned with population, namely, biopolitics, security and governmentality. Finally, in the early 1980s disciplinary power figured more as an implicit background to his analyses of subjectivity in Greco-Roman antiquity and early Christianity. The long shadow cast by this concept renders it absolutely crucial to understanding the trajectory of Foucault's thought. Using a composite account of disciplinary power drawn from Foucault's seminal presentation in Discipline and Punish as well as his College de France course for the academic year 1973-74, Psychiatric Power, I will provide an overview of disciplinary power and then exem­ plify the exercise of this power through Frederick Winslow Taylor's The Principles of Scientific Management, published in 1911. Taylor's Principles, which influenced American and European industrialists as well as Lenin and Antonio Gramsci, enriches our understanding of disciplinary power in two ways. First, the presentation of scientific management at the core of Principles reflects nothing short of a full­ fledged disciplinary programme. Indeed, it is hard to read a page of Principles without noticing that Taylor suffuses his presentation with 27

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

a thoroughly disciplinary aspiration. Second, Taylor's Principles high­ lights the limitations to the exercise of disciplinary power by attesting that disciplinary practices bound up with the application of scientific management are deeply contested. Taylor thus de-naturalizes this form of power even as he seeks to extend its reach not only within factories, but also within "all social activities", including the management of homes, farms, businesses, churches, charities, universities and govern­ mental agencies (F. W Taylor 196 7 : 8 ) .

S u bjected i nd i vi d u a l s

The concept of disciplinary power concerns individuals. A s Foucault notes with reference to what he takes to be the ideal exercise of this power, "We are never dealing with a mass, with a group, or even, to tell the truth, with a multiplicity: we are only ever dealing with individuals" (2006a: 75, emphasis added). However, in opposition to political theories which take the individual as a given for the purpose of constructing sovereignty, as in the notable case of Thomas Hobbes's version of the social contract, Foucault sets about showing that the individual first and foremost amounts to a construction of disciplinary power. The individual is an effect of this form of power rather than the raw material upon which it impinges. Foucault writes, "Discipline 'makes' individuals; it is the specific techniques of a power that regards individuals as objects and as instruments of its exercise" (1979 : 170). As a first approximation, we can therefore say that disciplinary power produces individuals as its objects, objectives and instruments. Disciplinary power yields such effects by targeting bodies. The tar­ geting of bodies may not seem terribly unique, especially in light of Foucault's sweeping assertion that "what is essential in all power is that ultimately its point of application is always the body " (2006a: 14, emphasis added). It seems even less singular in light of his sugges­ tion that pastoral power treats the body as an object of care (2007 : 126-8) and that even sovereign power sets its sights o n the body as an object of violence or honour (2006a: 44-5 ) . However, what dis­ tinguishes disciplinary power from these other modalities of power is its endeavour to meticulously, exhaustively and continuously control the activities of bodies so as to constitute them as bearers of a highly particular relationship between utility and docility, whereby increases in utility correspond to increases in docility and vice versa. In Foucault's words, disciplinary power strives to make the body "more obedient as it becomes more useful, and conversely " (1979 : 13 8 ) . This increase 28

DIS CIPLINARY POWER

entails the augmentation of the skills and aptitudes of bodies without at the same time allowing these skills and aptitudes to serve as a source of resistance to disciplinary power. This form of power thereby attempts to resolve the problem of the resistances aroused from its own incessant investments in the body. Disciplinary power controls the body to effec­ tuate this result through the production not only of an individual but also of individuality, the amalgam of qualities that render an individual distinct from others (Arendt 19 8 5 : 454). This individuality consists of cellular, organic, genetic and combinatory traits. Let us now outline the production of these traits. Foucault insists that disciplinary power creates a cellular form of individuality by ordering individuals in space. He calls this ordering "the art of distributions" . Cellular individuality rests on the division of individuals from others. The art of distributions produces this individu­ ality by first of all enclosing a space different from all others through the use of walls or gates, as in the case of barracks and factories (Foucault 1979 : 141-3 ) . It partitions this space into individual cells in order to break up collective activities that deter from the goal of utility, such as desertion or vagabondage. The art of distributions also codes a space with specific functions to make it as useful as possible (ibid. : 143-5 ) . A s a n example of this coding, Foucault refers t o the production o f printed fabrics a t the Oberkampf manufactory a t Jouy. The workshops at the manufactory were divided into operations "for the printers, the handlers, the colourists, the women who touched up the design, the engravers, the dyers" (ibid. : 145) . Each worker occupied a space defined by his or her specific function within the overall production process. Lastly, the art of distributions creates a cellular individuality by ascrib­ ing the unit of rank to individuals. As an example of rank, Foucault discusses the seating of pupils in a classroom according to their age, grade and behaviour (ibid. : 146-7) . Within this enclosed space, disciplinary power produces an organic individuality by exerting a control over bodily activities. This individu­ ality is "organic" in so far as it lends itself to disciplinary practices all on its own, as if spontaneously and naturally (ibid. : 155 --6) . The control of bodily activities realizes this organic individuality first of all through a temporal enclosure afforded by the use of timetables, which prevent idleness by partitioning activities into minutes and seconds (ibid. : 15 051) . The control of activities also breaks down movements of the body into an ever-greater number of acts and indexes these acts to temporal imperatives. Foucault identifies the prescription of the duration and length of the steps of marching soldiers as an example of this temporal elaboration of the act (ibid. : 151-2). The control of activities further 29

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

implies a relationship between the general position of the body and its gestures. In this regard, Foucault mentions the example of the upright posture of pupils and the correct positioning of their elbows, chins, hands, legs, fingers and stomachs as the conditions for good handwrit­ ing (ibid. ) . The control of activities goes even further, correlating the gestures of the body to the parts of the object used by it, as in the case of manifold gestures employed by a soldier to manipulate the barrel, butt, trigger-guard, notch, moulding, lock, screw and hammer of a rifle (ibid. : 15 3 ) . Finally, rather than merely preventing idleness, the control of activities forges an organic individuality by exhaustively using time. With the activities of the body controlled, disciplinary power pro­ ceeds to constitute a genetic form of individuality by subjecting the body to the demand for a perpetual progress towards an optimal end. Foucault dubs this demand the "organization of geneses". Drawing from the example of the military, he submits that perpetual progress towards an end yields a genetic individuality in the following ways: first, through the division of time into distinct segments, such as periods of practice and training; second, through the organization of these segments into a plan proceeding from the simplest elements, such as the positioning of the fingers in military exercise; third, through the ascription of an end to these segments in the form of an exam; and, finally, through the production of a series that assigns exercises to each individual according to rank (ibid. : 15 7-9) . Finally, disciplinary power establishes a combinatory form of indi­ viduality characterized by articulations with other bodies to obtain a level of efficiency greater than that realized by the mere sum of the activities of these bodies (ibid. : 167) . Foucault calls this process the composition of forces. This composition gives rise to a combinatory individuality by first treating individual bodies as mobile elements to be connected to other individual bodies as well as the totality of bodies; second, by coordinating the time of each of these bodies to maximize the extraction of their forces and to combine them with others for the optimal results; and, lastly, by commands that may be transmitted through signs and that therefore need not be verbalized, much less explained (ibid. : 164-7). We now know how disciplinary power works and what it produces. It works by distributing individuals, controlling activities, organizing geneses and composing forces, and these functions correspond to the production of cellular, organic, genetic and combinatory individualities, respectively. Yet, at the risk of drawing too fine a distinction, Foucault goes further in his analysis to impart a sharp sense of how disciplinary power gets going and keeps going. He attributes the success of this power 30

DISCIPL I N ARY POWER

to several basic techniques: hierarchical observation, normalizing judge­ ment and the examination. If architecture figures within the art of distributions as a means of ordering multiplicities into cellular individuals, it plays the role within hierarchical observation of rendering individuals visible with the overall effect of structuring their behaviour. In making individuals seeable, architecture serves, as Foucault writes, "to act on those it shelters, to provide a hold on their conduct, to carry the effects of power right to them, to make it possible to know them, to alter them" (ibid. : 172). Still, he suggests that outside of any ideal schema, architecture alone falls short of making visibility constant. What makes this visibility perpetual is the implementation of a hierarchical network within the group of individuals who occupy a particular architectural space. Foucault offers many examples of these networks. While we will not dwell on them here (we have an opportunity to gauge their presence in Taylor's Prin­ ciples), it is instructive to mention briefly one particularly rich example. Foucault suggests that surveillance operated in the asylum in the early nineteenth century not only through a doctor but also through super­ visors who reported on patients, and servants who feigned servitude to patients while gathering and transmitting information about them to the doctor (2006a: 4-6) . This example clearly demonstrates the communication of the gaze from the top to the bottom, its manifestly "hierarchical" character. Yet, Foucault is keen to remind us that the gaze may operate in a more multi-directional manner to the point of bearing on the supervisors themselves. Although surveillance rests on individuals, its functioning is that of a network of relations from top to bottom, but also to a certain extent from bottom to top and laterally; this network "holds" the whole together and traverses it in its entirety with effects of power that derive from one another: supervisors, perpetually supervised. (19 79 : 176-7) Such a dense network of vigilant and multi-directional gazes no doubt causes disciplinary power to appear ubiquitous, but the sheer simplicity of its mechanism also makes it seem rather inconspicuous (ibid. : 177). In a disciplinary world, however, it is not enough to see bodies so as to yield from them specific effects. One must be able to judge them as well. This modality of power therefore depends on normalizing judgement for its continued exercise. Foucault indicates that this form of judgement consists of features that make it look quite different from judgement in, for example, criminal courts. These features are summed 31

M I CHEL FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

up in terms of the following forms of punishment: first, even minute departures from correct behaviour are punished; second, failure to adhere to rules established on the basis of regularities observed over time is punished; third, exercise is used specifically as a corrective punishment; fourth, gratification is used in addition to punishment for the purposes of establishing a hierarchy of good and bad subjects; and, finally, rank understood as the place occupied in this hierarchy is used as a form punishment or reward (ibid. : 177-8 3 ) . What ultimately stands out here for Foucault is the concept of the norm. Disciplinary power judges according to the norm. By "norm", however, it should be obvious that Foucault has in mind something other than a strictly legal concept. He depicts the norm as a standard of behaviour that allows for the measurement of forms of behaviour as "normal" or "abnormal" . In his words, "the norm introduces, as a useful imperative and as a result of measurement, all the shading of individual differences". The norm thus establishes the figure of the "normal" as a "principle of coercion" for the figure of the "abnormal" (ibid. : 184 ) . The examination combines the techniques of hierarchical observa­ tion and normalizing judgement in "a normalizing gaze" to lend further sustenance to the exercise of disciplinary power (ibid. ) . This gaze, as Foucault points out in a splendidly economical formula, "manifests the subjection of those who are perceived as objects and the objectifi­ cation of those who are subjected" (ibid. : 184-5 ) . Put differently, the examination binds the exercise of disciplinary power to the formation of a disciplinary knowledge. It does so in several ways. First of all, the examination facilitates the exercise of disciplinary power by objectifying subjects through observation. As Foucault posits, "Disciplinary power manifests its potency, essentially, by arranging objects. The examination is, as it were, the ceremony of this objectification" (ibid. : 187). In this regard, he mentions the first military review of Louis XIV as a form of examination yielding the objectification of subjects. This review subjected 18,000 soldiers to the gaze of a barely visible sovereign who commanded their exercises (ibid. : 18 8 ) . Second, the examination con­ stitutes individuality through an administrative form of writing that leaves behind a dense layer of documents, as in the examples of medical records and student records. This writing makes it possible to describe individuals as objects and track their development, or lack thereof, as well as to monitor through comparison phenomena within the larger aggregate of population (ibid. : 18 9-91). Finally, the accumulation of documents through the examination forges the individual as a case defined in terms of a status bound up with all of the "measurements", "gaps" and '"marks"' characteristic of disciplinary power (ibid. : 192). 32

DIS CIPLINARY POWER

In historical terms, Foucault sketches the shift from a society (prior to the sixteenth century) in which disciplinary power played a marginal but critical and innovative role from within the confines of religious communities to a society (beginning in the eighteenth century) in which it played a preponderant role from a myriad of institutions. In this sketch, disciplinary power spread initially through several "points of support" (2006a: 66) with religious underpinnings, such as the educa­ tion of youth inspired by the ascetic ideal embraced by the Brethren of the Common Life with its focus on progressive stages of education, rules of seclusion, submission to a guide and military organization; coloniza­ tion as practised by the Jesuits in the Guarani republic of Paraguay with its emphasis on the full employment of time, permanent supervision and the cellular constitution of families; and, lastly, the confinement of marginal elements of the population under the management of religious orders. From these peripheral positions, disciplinary power began to cover more spheres of society without any religious backing, appearing in the army by the end of the seventeenth century and working class by the eighteenth century (ibid. : 66-71) . Foucault maintains that this formidable extension of disciplinary power across the surface of society reflected a deeper ensemble of trans­ formations. First, disciplinary power began to function as a technique more for the constitution of useful individuals than for the prevention of desertion, idleness, theft and other problems. Second, disciplinary mechanisms began to extend beyond their institutional parameters to yield lateral effects. In this regard, Foucault mentions the quite fascinat­ ing example of schools using information gathered from students to monitor parental behaviour. Lastly, disciplinary power began to bear on society as a whole through the organization of a police apparatus concerned with intricacies of individual behaviour (1979 : 210-16). These transformations were bound up in their turn with broad his­ torical processes in economic, juridical and scientific domains. The gen­ eralization of disciplinary power took place against the background of the eighteenth-century problem of indexing the rapid growth in popula­ tion to the rapid growth in production apparatuses (ibid. : 218-20) . It attempted to resolve this problem by offering a means of administering the growth in the number of human beings and making them useful. The generalization of disciplinary power also entailed consequences for the juridical system, introducing asymmetries that vitiated the egalitar­ ian juridical framework forged in the eighteenth century. As Foucault explains, disciplinary power established relationships of constraint between individuals rather than relationships of contractual obligation, and it defined individuals hierarchically rather than universally. The 33

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

play of such asymmetries within the time and space proper to the exer­ cise of disciplinary power effectively suspended the law (ibid. : 222-3 ) . Lastly, the generalization o f disciplinary power implied a tightening of relations between power and knowledge to the point of their mutual constitution by the eighteenth century. The objectification of individuals became the means for their subjection and the subjection of individu­ als became the means for their objectification (ibid. : 224 ). Through the diffusion of psychology and psychiatry, the examination became incarnated in "tests, interviews, interrogations and consultations" that reproduced mutually constitutive power-knowledge relations within disciplinary institutions (ibid. : 226-7) . Foucault finds the "formula" for the generalization of the exercise of disciplinary power in Jeremy Bentham's architectural plan for the model prison, Panopticon, published in 1791 (Foucault 2006a: 41) . Foucault relates that Bentham depicts the Panopticon as an annular building with an internal periphery consisting of cells containing iron grate doors opening to the interior and windows opening to the exte­ rior as well as a multi-floored central tower containing wide windows with blinds and partitions. Foucault considers this building the per­ fect expression of disciplinary power for a host of reasons. First, with each of the cells designed to be occupied by only one inmate at a time the building produces individualizing effects at its periphery. Second, venetian blinds and partitions on the tower conceal whether anyone actually occupies it, guaranteeing anonymity at the centre . Third, the artificial light from the central tower as well as the natural light entering through the cell windows assure the visibility of inmates in the cells. Finally, this visibility allows for the perpetual writing about inmates and, consequently, the constitution of an administrative knowledge about them (ibid. : 7 5-8 ) . These features render the Panopticon a magnificent machine not only for subjection but also for self�subjection. By inducing in inmates an awareness of their own constant visibility, the Panopticon compels them to structure their own behaviour in accordance with its power mechanism (Foucault 1979 : 201) . Notably missing from this ideal process is any reliance on violence or ostentatious displays of force. Remarkably, the play of visibility facilitated by spatial arrangements and lighting suffices to make inmates the very conduits of the power mechanism embodied in the Panopticon. Though Bentham conceived of the Panopticon as an ideal prison for the resolution of the vexing problem of pauperism (Polanyi 2001: 111-13 ) , Foucault does not tire of reminding us that Bentham con­ sidered it applicable to a broad array of settings besides the prison. As 34

DIS CIPLINARY POWER

Foucault explains on Bentham's behalf, "Whenever one is dealing with a multiplicity of individuals on whom a task or a particular form of behavior must be imposed, the panoptic schema may be used" (1979 : 205 ) . Moreover, lest we think that the Panopticon simply remained a product of Bentham's imagination, Foucault points out that, "In the 183 0s, the Panopticon became the architectural program of most prison projects" (ibid. : 249) and that institutions apart from the prison adopted its architectural dispositions for a wide variety of purposes. As an exam­ ple of this adoption, Foucault details all of the Panoptic features of the architecture of the asylum in the early nineteenth century, demonstrat­ ing that the panoptic architecture of the asylum building was construed as the very cure to madness (2006a: 102-7) . This cross-institutional takeover of Panoptic architectural dispositions intensified the spread of disciplinary power. For all of the reasons elaborated above, namely, the diffusion of disciplinary power from one institution to another as well as its various transformations into an ever more productive and pervasive modal­ ity of power culminating in the extension of Panoptic architectural features, Foucault finds warrant in speaking somewhat grandiosely about the advent of a " disciplinary society " . Yet his employment of this expression is not without qualification. Foucault clearly wants us to take away from the phrase "disciplinary society " an understanding of a society in which disciplinary power is pervasive enough to inter­ act with and alter other modalities of power rather than one in which it simply effaces these other modalities (19 79 : 216) . Such complex articulations derive precisely from the incompleteness of the exercise of disciplinary power even in the context of a "disciplinary society " . This incompleteness will become abundantly evident a s w e turn to Taylor's Principles. Taylor's Principles as a d i sc i p l i na ry p rogra m me

At its core, scientific management as propounded by Taylor in his Prin­ ciples attempts to increase the efficiency of workers by divesting them of any roles in planning and controlling their own work, and by placing these roles squarely in the hands of the management. Scientific manage­ ment is manifestly disciplinary in this overall goal of increasing effi­ ciency. However, Taylor devotes the bulk of his Principles to illustrating the efficacy and superiority of scientific management with reference to concrete examples drawn from a range of industrial activities, and it is within the inglorious intricacies of these examples that his espousal of 35

MICHEL FOU C A ULT: KEY CONCEPTS

a disciplinary perspective becomes altogether striking. Let us turn to a couple of his most pertinent illustrations. Taylor's first illustration comes from his experience of attempting to increase the amount of pig iron loaded at the Bethlehem Steel Company from 12.5 tons to 4 7 tons per worker per day. Taylor recounts that he sought this nearly fourfold increase from workers without at the same time provoking their resistance. In his words, "It was further our duty to see that this work was done without bringing on a strike among men" (F. W Taylor 196 7 : 43 ) . Taylor addresses here the disciplinary problem of maximizing the utility as well as docility of individual bodies. He goes on to explain that he set about resolving this problem by, first of all, selecting out of the 75 workers at Bethlehem Steel four workers capable of loading 4 7 tons of pig iron per day. This selection took place on the basis of the deployment of a veritable myriad of disciplinary practices, which Taylor describes in the following passage : In dealing with workmen under this type of management, it is an inflexible rule to talk to and deal with only one man at a time, since each workman has his own special abilities and limitations, and since we are not dealing with men in masses, but are trying to develop each individual man to his highest state of efficiency and prosperity. Our first step was therefore to find a proper work­ man to begin with. We therefore carefully watched and studied these 7 5 men for three or four days, at the end of which time we had picked out four men who appeared to be physically able to handle pig iron at the rate of 4 7 tons per day. A careful study was then made of each of these men. We looked up their history as far back as practicable and thorough inquiries were made as to the character, habits and the ambition of each of them. Finally we selected one from among the four as the most likely man to start with. (Ibid. ) One of the most obvious disciplinary effects in this passage is indi­ vidualization. Taylor informs us of the importance of having treated workers individually rather than collectively, thereby reminding us of Foucault's discussion of the constitution of a "cellular " individuality. However, he proceeds to indicate that the individualizing effects sought in the selection process rested on the observation of the mass of work­ ers, and that this observation and the knowledge obtained from it facili­ tated a judgement about the most able-bodied workers. Lastly, Taylor tells us that he made the selection of the most able-bodied worker at Bethlehem Steel on the basis of an enquiry into the identities of the 36

DIS CIPLINARY POWER

four most able-bodied workers. Individualization, observation and the constitution of an administrative identity on the basis of knowledge obtained through observation all figure centrally in Taylor's account of the selection of the appropriate worker to load 4 7 tons of pig iron per day. This worker turned out to be "a little Pennsylvania Dutchman" dubbed Schmidt (ibid. ) . Taylor explains that his team selected Schmidt as the first worker to try out the increase in pig iron loading because it had learned through its enquiries that Schmidt placed an unusually high premium on his earnings. It was on the basis on this knowledge about Schmidt that Taylor's team approached him, first to entice him with the monetary incentive of a pay of $ 1 . 8 5 rather than standard $ 1 . 1 5 a day and then to inform him that the increase in pay would presuppose a strict obedience (ibid. : 44-5 ) . 'Taylor relates that Schmidt was told the following in particular : Well, if you are a high-priced man, you will do exactly as this man tells you to-morrow, from morning 'til night. When he tells you to pick up a pig and walk, you pick it up and you walk, and when he tells you to sit down and rest, you sit down. You do that right straight through the day. And what's more, no back talk. Now a high-priced man does just what he's told to do, and no back talk. Do you understand that? When this man tells you to walk, you walk; when he tells you to sit down, you sit down, and you don't (Ibid. : 45-6) talk back at him. As in the case of the previous passage, several disciplinary practices leap out at us from this excerpt of "rough talk" to Schmidt (ibid. : 46). The first of these practices is the exhaustive regularity of the movements of the body. The person in charge of Schmidt would command him not only how to work but also when and how to rest so as to work all the more efficiently. Moreover, this person would insist that Schmidt follow his orders without any "back talk", once again illustrating the discipli­ nary relationship between increased utility and increased obedience. In this instance, we are further reminded of Foucault's contention that commands in the exercise of disciplinary power need not be premised on any explanation. They need only "trigger off the required behavior and that is enough" ( 1 979 : 1 66 ) . We learn from Taylor's narrative that Schmidt accepted the condi­ tions spelled out in the passage above and succeeded in loading 4 7 tons of pig iron per day under the meticulous control of the aforementioned person from Bethlehem Steel. Presumably, Schmidt could have used 37

MICHEL FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

his demonstrated skill in loading so much pig iron to extract conces­ sions from management at Bethlehem Steel. However, Taylor adds that under the continued presence of an overseer Schmidt "practically never failed to work at this pace and do the task that was set him during the three years that the writer was at Bethlehem" ( 1 9 67 : 47) . He thus leaves us with the distinct impression that the application of scientific management succeeded in yielding Schmidt as a docile as well as useful individual. Another illustration that reveals the disciplinary character of scien­ tific management derives from Taylor's account of efforts to increase the output of shovellers at Bethlehem Steel. Unlike the example above, Taylor in this instance discloses the process used to determine the appro­ priate load for the maximum daily output of shovellers, explaining that experimentation with and the observation of several of the best shovellers led to the discovery of 21 pounds as the appropriate load (ibid. : 65). On the basis of this knowledge, Bethlehem Steel set up an intricate instructions and record-keeping procedure. Taylor recalls the emphasis on individualization in this procedure, stressing that this emphasis was reflected in a system of writing detailing not only what each worker should do on a given day and how he should do it but also whether he had worked enough to earn his $ 1 . 8 5 on the previous day, presumably by loading his 2 1 pounds per shovel. This system of writing used a norm - work equivalent to $ 1 . 8 5 a day or 2 1 pounds per shovel - to distinguish normal from abnormal workers, with the former denoted by the receipt of white slips and the latter denoted by the receipt of yellow slips. According to Taylor, the consequences of this distinction were perfectly clear. Workers in receipt of yellow slips were faced with the choice of working in adherence to the norm and, consequently, normalizing themselves, or being demoted to a type of work corresponding to their comparatively low levels of productivity. We have in his discussion of the consequences of the distribution of these slips a fairly clear and vivid illustration of normalizing judgement. Taylor draws the following lesson from the experience of individual­ ized instructions and record keeping at Bethlehem Steel: If the workman fails to do his task, some competent teacher should be sent to show him exactly how his work can best be done, to guide, help, and encourage him, and, at the same time, to study his possibilities as a workman. So that, under the plan which individualizes each workman, instead of brutally discharging the man or lowering his wages for failing to make good at once, he is given the time and the help required to make him proficient at 38

DIS C IPL I N ARY POWER

his present job, or he is shifted to another class of work for which he is either mentally or physically better suited. (Ibid. : 69-70) This prescription is most obviously disciplinary in its preference for first training abnormal workers on an individual basis rather than simply discharging them. Training in this instance also facilitates an intimate examination of the aptitudes of these workers with the effect of allow­ ing for the production of additional knowledge about them. Taylor identifies the point of support for such prescriptions as a ramified structure consisting as it did at Bethlehem Steel of superintend-· ants and clerks planning the fine details of work, preparing instruction slips and managing records, subtended by teachers working intimately with workers to make sure that they carry out the tasks spelled out in the instruction slips as well as tool-room men preparing standard­ ized implements for the execution of these tasks (ibid. ) . This structure nicely illustrates the network of gazes facilitating the play of hierarchi­ cal observation. Taylor's exposition of scientific management abounds with such examples of disciplinary power but it also de-naturalizes this modal­ ity of power by demonstrating that disciplinary practices bound up with the application of scientific management have yet to take root, and that they are subject to great contestation (at the risk of belabour­ ing the obvious, it is worth keeping in mind that if these disciplinary practices had taken root, Taylor would not have needed to compose Principles). Indeed, Taylor paints his vision of scientifically managed labour-processes on a canvas of sceptical employers as well as a mass of recalcitrant, if not openly hostile, workers. Against the disciplinary demand for maximized utility, we find in Taylor's narrative workers who threaten to strike, workers who intimidate managers and workers who damage machinery (ibid. : 49-52). Taylor is acutely aware of the prospect of inciting warfare within the interstices of the labour process. For this reason, he warns prospective practitioners against the hasty application of his principles of scientific management and insists that only a prolonged period of habituation will result in the successful application of these principles (ibid. : 128-35 ) . To paraphrase Foucault, we could therefore say that the not so distant "roar of battle" (Foucault 1 9 79 : 3 0 8 ) resounds throughout Taylor's theory, suggesting that only an ensemble of deeply contested practices sustain the exercise of a dis­ ciplinary power that strives to appear natural and spontaneous in the very bodies of individuals.

39

T H REE

Biopower Chloe Taylor

French philosopher Michel Foucault is perhaps best known as a theorist of power. Foucault analysed several different types of power, includ­ ing sovereign power, disciplinary power and the subject of the current chapter: biopower. In what follows, I will first provide an overview of biopower as Foucault conceives of it. This overview will distinguish biopower from sovereign and disciplinary power, identify and discuss distinctive characteristics of biopower and provide examples which illustrate these characteristics. The final section of the chapter under­ takes an extended example of a particular occurrence of biopower within modern and contemporary Western societies.

Powers of l ife and death: from sovereig n powe r to biopower

In The History of Sexuality: An Introduction (1990a) and in his 19757 6 College de France course, Society Must Be Defended (2003) Foucault describes biopower as a power which takes hold of human life. In both these works Foucault traces the shift from classical, juridico-legal or sovereign power to two typically modern forms of power, discipline and biopower, as a shift from a right of death to a power over life: "in the classical theory of sovereignty, the right of life and death was one of sovereignty 's basic attributes . . . The right of sovereignty was the right to take life or let live. And then this new right is established : the right to make live and to let die" (2003 : 240-41). Sovereign power is a power which deduces. It is the right to take away not only life but wealth, services, labour and products. Its only power over life is to 41

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

seize that life, to end, impoverish or enslave it; what it does not seize it leaves alone. Sovereign power's right over life is merely the right of subtraction, not of regulation or control. As Foucault writes: The sovereign exercised his right of life only by exercising his right to kill, or by refraining from killing; he evidenced his power over life only through the death he was capable of requiring. The right which was formulated as the "power of life and death" was in reality the right to take life or let live. Its symbol, after all, was (1990a: 13 6, emphasis added) the sword. The seventeenth-century theorist of sovereign power Thomas Hob­ bes illustrates Foucault's points, writing: For seeing there is no Common-wealth in the world, wherein there be Rules enough set down, for the regulating of all the actions, and words of men, (as being a thing impossible : ) it followeth necessar­ ily, that in all kinds of actions, by the laws praetermitted, men have the Liberty, of doing what their own reasons shall suggest, for the most profitable to themselves. (19 8 6 : 264) Hobbes notes in particular that it would be ludicrous for a sovereign to attempt to regulate the corporeal dimensions of a subject's existence, and hence no covenant with the sovereign could be concerned with these aspects of a subject's life. Hobbes argues that so far as "corporall Liberty " is concerned, subjects of any commonwealth are fre e : "For if wee take Liberty in the proper sense, for corporall Liberty; that is to say, freedome from chains, and prison, it were very absurd for men to clamor as they doe, for the Liberty they so manifestly enjoy" (ibid. ) . The freedom of subjects, for Hobbes, consists of those aspects of life with respect to which there are no covenants with the sovereign. For Hobbes, it would be absurd to imagine certain mundane aspects of life, such as liberty over one's body and private life, being the subject of such covenants. Hobbes simply cannot imagine these being of interest to the king or to the commonwealth, or mechanisms of power which might function at this level. He elaborates: The Liberty of a Subject, lyeth therefore only in those things, which in regulating their actions, the Soveraign hath praetermit­ ted : such as is the Liberty to buy, and sell, and otherwise contract with one another; to choose their own aboad, their own diet, their own trade of life, and institute their children as they themselves 42

BIOPOWER

think fit: & the like . " Hobbes adds that "Lawes are of no power . . . Without a Sword in the hands of a man, or men, to cause those (Ibid. ) laws to be put in execution. And he assumes that concerns such as dwelling, diet and childcare could never warrant the wielding of a sword or the exercise of law. Sovereign power is, then, for Hobbes as for Foucault, a juridico-legal power to kill which leaves the daily life of the body alone, and its symbol is the sword or the threat of death. In those realms where one would not wield a sword or the force of law, one is free or escapes from power. In particular, Hobbes thinks that our bodies are free, or that we have "corporall Liberty" unless the sovereign has us literally in chains. In contrast to sovereign power which could "take life or let live", biopower is the power "to foster life or disallow it to the point of death" (Foucault 199 0a: 13 8 , emphasis added) . Foucault writes, Power would no longer be dealing simply with legal subjects over whom the ultimate dominion was death, but with living beings, and the mastery it would be able to exercise over them would have to be applied at the level of life itself: it was the taking charge of life, more than the threat of death, that gave power its access even (Ibid. : 142-3 ) to the body. Hobbes deems corporeal aspects of life such as dwelling (abode), desires (what we want to purchase and consume), the care of the body (diet), and childcare and education to be outside of the interests of the sovereign and hence free. Yet for Foucault these aspects become some of the privileged loci of the mechanisms of biopower, indicating a transformation of power which Hobbes would have deemed "a thing impossible". 1 Biopower is able to access the body because it functions through norms rather than laws, because it is internalized by subjects rather than exercised from above through acts or threats of violence, and because it is dispersed throughout society rather than located in a single individual or government body. While the sovereign power which Hobbes describes could only seize life or kill, Foucault writes of "a very profound transformation of these mechanisms of power" , in which "deduction" would be replaced by a power "working to incite, reinforce, control, monitor, optimize, and organize the forces under it: a power bent on generating forces, making them grow, and order­ ing them, rather than one dedicated to impeding them, making them submit, or destroying them" (ibid. : 13 6 ) . 43

MICHEL

FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

Two level s of bio power: d i sc i p l i ne a n d reg u lation

In his 1 977-78 College de France course, Security, Territory, Popula­ tion, Foucault takes the example of a prohibition such as "do not steal" or "do not murder" in order to illustrate the differences between sover­ eign power, discipline and biopower in a simple way (Foucault 2007). Under sovereign power, which predominated up until the end of the seventeenth century when Hobbes was writing, an individual who trans­ gressed these prohibitions against theft and murder would be subjected to the law and punished solely on the basis of his crime; he might, for instance, be executed, exiled or fined. Under disciplinary power, which emerged in the eighteenth century, the criminal will still be subjected to the law or punished, however it will no longer be a mere matter of his crime. Rather, power will now be at least as interested in the thief 's or murderer's character. It will want to know the conditions, both material and psychological, under which the individual committed his crime. This information will be deemed important in order to anticipate and intervene in the likelihood that the criminal will reoffend. In order to predict and control the individual's chance of recidivating, the crimi­ nal needs to be subjected to psychological examinations, surveillance and rehabilitative practices unknown under sovereign power. For this reason, the punishment is less likely to put an end to the criminal's life, and more likely to control his life through tactics such as prison, psychiatric treatment, parole and probation. Finally, under biopower, which emerged later in the eighteenth century, the focus and target of power becomes the numbers of thefts and murders occurring in the population. Power now takes an interest in whether crime rates are rising or falling, in which demographic groups particular crimes are predominant, and how crime rates can be optimally controlled or regu­ lated. While many of the same tactics will be employed under biopower as under disciplinary power, the focus will now be on the population rather than the individual. If at times Foucault describes discipline and biopower as two distinct (although intersecting and overlapping) forms of power,2 at other times he includes discipline within biopower, or describes discipline as one of the two levels at which biopower works. Biopower is a power over bios or life, and lives may be managed on both an individual and a group basis. While at one level disciplinary institutions such as schools, workshops, prisons and psychiatric hospitals target individual bodies as they deviate from norms, at another level the state is concerned with knowing and administrating the norms of the population as a whole and thus with understanding and regulating "the problems of 44

BIOPOWER

birthrate, longevity, public health, housing, and migration" (Foucault 1990a: 140). Disciplinary power works primarily through institutions, while biopower works primarily through the state, however the state is also involved in many institutions, such as the prison. In The History of Sexuality: An Introduction, Foucault writes of biopower: this power over life evolved in two basic forms; these two forms were not antithetical, however; they constituted rather two poles of development linked together by a whole intermediary cluster of relations. One of these poles - the first to be formed, it seems - centered on the body as a machine : its disciplining, the opti­ mization of its capabilities, the extortion of its forces, the paral­ lel increase of its usefulness and its docility, its integration into systems of efficient and economic controls, all this was ensured by the procedures of power that characterized the disciplines: an anatomo-politics of the human body. The second, formed some­ what later, focused on the species body, the body imbued with the mechanics of life and serving as the basis of the biological proc­ esses: propagation, births and mortality, the level of health, life expectancy and longevity, with all the conditions that can cause these to vary. Their supervision was effected through an entire series of interventions and regulatory controls: a bio-politics of the population. (Ibid. : 13 9, emphasis added) Discipline may be seen as biopower as it targets the individual body, therefore, while another level of biopower targets the species-body. Foucault will describe these two levels as "the two poles around which the organization of power over life was deployed" (ibid. ) . These two levels of power are necessarily intertwined, since bodies make up popu­ lations and populations are made up of individual bodies. In Society Must Be Defended, Foucault insists that a biopolitics of the population: does not exclude disciplinary technology, but it does dovetail into it, integrate it, modify it to some extent, and above all, use it by sort of infiltrating it, embedding itself in existing disciplinary techniques. This new technique does not simply do away with the disciplinary technique, because it exists at a different level, on a different scale, and because it has a different bearing area, (2003 : 242) and makes use of very different instruments. One way of conceptualizing the point of this passage is to say that dis­ cipline is the micro-technology and biopolitics is the macro-technology 45

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CON CEPTS

Table 3 . 1 Two levels of biopower

Institutions

Aim Regulatory power (biopolitics)

Populations, species, race

Knowledge/ The state power and control of the population

Disciplinary power (anatomopolitics)

Individuals, bodies

Knowledge/ power and subjugation of bodies

Schools, armies, prisons, asylums, hospitals, workshops

Tactics Studies and practices of demographers, sociologists, economists; interventions in the birthrate, longevity, public health, housing, migration Studies and practices of criminologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, educators; apprenticeship, tests, education, training

of the same power over life. Table 3 .1 schematizes the distinctions between these two levels of biopower.

Ad m i n i steri ng l ife: from the cen s u s to sexua l ity

Biopower administers life rather than threatening to take it away. In order to administer life, it is important for the state to obtain forecasts and statistical estimates concerning such demographic factors as fertil­ ity, natality, immigration, dwelling and mortality rates (Foucault 1990a: 25) . For this reason, an important moment in the history of biopower is the development of the modern census. While inventories of heads of households, property and men who could serve in the military were taken in ancient Rome, China, Palestine, Babylonia, Persia and Egypt, they were almost unknown throughout the Middle Ages (an exception being the Domesday Book of William the Conqueror), and differed from the modern census in that they did not attempt to gather infor­ mation about the entirety of the population, but only about specific types of individuals: those who could be taxed, drafted or forced to work. The idea of enumerating the entirety of a population was only introduced in Western countries at the end of the seventeenth century and became increasingly detailed in the centuries that followed. Soon, the census secured data on dates and places of birth, marital status and occupations. Modern states recognized the necessity of understanding the characteristics, structures and trends of their populations in order to manage them or to compensate for what they could not control. 46

BIOPOWER

One subject of biopolitical concern is the age of a population, "together with a whole series of related economic and political prob­ lems" (Foucault 2003 : 243 ). The state is concerned with demographic forecasts which foresee a "sapp [ing of] the population's strength, [a] shorten [ing of] the working week, wasted energy, and cost money [ . . . ] (ibid. : 244 ). We often hear of the ageing of the "baby boomer" genera­ tion, for example, when unprecedented segments of the population will retire from the work force and require expensive geriatric care. Both a "sapping" of the labour force and of medical resources are predicted as a result and need to be compensated for, while retirement and geriatric care facilities need to be established and staffed in anticipation of this event. Another area of biopolitical study and intervention is the health and survival of neo-nates, managed, for instance, through government­ sponsored breastfeeding advocacy campaigns (see Kukla 2005 : chs 2, 5). States may also be concerned with what sorts of babies are born, or which demographic groups they are born into. The French Canadian province of Quebec has a profound interest in keeping the French language alive in its territory, for instance, and is thus concerned with increasing its francophone population in particular. Since the census reveals that French Canadians have fewer children than English Canadi­ ans, "allophones" and immigrants, the province compensates with pro­ natal policies, by promoting immigration from francophone countries (through financial incentives), and by promoting immigration in general (through attractions such as inexpensive day-care) while obliging chil­ dren of non-francophone families to attend French-language schools. As Foucault writes in The History of Sexuality : At the heart of this economic and political problem of population was sex . . . It was essential that the state know what was happening with its citizens' sex, and the use they made of it . . . Between the state and the individual, sex became an issue, and a public issue (1990a: 26) no less. While non-reproductive sexual acts had long been considered sinful, since the eighteenth century they have come to be seen as a threat to soci­ ety. At the disciplinary level, individuals engaging in non-reproductive sexual acts and women uninterested in procreative sex have been medi­ cally treated for p erversion, frigidity and sexual dysfunction. At the biopolitical level, non-reproductive sexual acts and the rejection of reproductive sexuality are issues which need to be managed. It is neces­ sary to know what proportion of the population is engaging in specific 47

MICHEL FOUCAULT: KE Y CONCEPTS

sexual acts, or is using contraceptives, in order to intervene in this behav­ iour or to compensate for it. While in some segments of society the state is concerned with promoting procreation and thus with providing incentives to parenthood, in other segments of the population the state is concerned with containing and preventing procreation. In particu­ lar, certain groups, such as unwed women, the poor, criminals and the mentally or physically ill or disabled have been deemed (and in some instances continue to be deemed) unfit to procreate or to raise children.3 As these cases show, sex is important at both levels of biopower, concerning as it does both the individual's use of his or her body and the growth and health of the population. As Foucault notes, "Sexuality exists at the point where body and population meet. And so it is a mat­ ter for discipline, but also a matter for regularization" (2003 : 25 1-2) . Sex was a means of access both to the life of the body and the life of the species. It was employed as a standard for the disciplines and as a basis for regulations. This is why in the nineteenth cen­ tury sexuality was sought out in the smallest details of individual existences . . . . But one also sees it becoming the theme of politi­ cal operations, economic interventions (through incitements to or curbs on procreation), and ideological campaigns for raising standards of morality and responsibility: it was put forward as an index of a society's strength, revealing of both its political energy and its biological vigor. Spread out from one pole to the other of this technology of sex was a whole series of different tactics that combined in varying proportions the object of disciplining the body and that of regulating populations. ( 1 99 0a: 146) Far from being something which we have recently liberated (or still struggle to liberate) from an archaic and repressive power, Foucault therefore argues that sex is in fact a privileged site and indeed a product of the workings of modern forms of power.

Death in the a g e of biopol itics

In contrast to sex, Foucault argues that death has now receded from view, becoming private and hidden. While sovereign power entailed the right to impose death, the aims of biopower are to foster and manage life, and so death becomes a "scandal" . Under sovereign power death was ritualized as the moment of passing from one sovereign authority to the next. Death was the ultimate expression of the sovereign's power 48

BIOPOWER

and was made into a public spectacle whenever this power needed to be affirmed. In contrast, under biopower, death is the moment in which we escape power (Foucault 2003 : 248 ) . Foucault writes of the "disqualification of death" in the biopolitical age, and observes that the "great public ritualization of death gradually began to disappear" (ibid. : 24 7). For this reason suicide was illegal under sovereign power, perceived as a seizure of the king's power to take life, whereas today it is a medical problem, a shameful secret and a bewildering threat. As an escape from bio-disciplinary power, suicide is described by Foucault as a subversive act of resistance in works such as "I, Pierre Riviere . " (19 8 2b) and Herculine Barbin (19 8 0a). One manifestation of the shift from the sovereign power to kill to the biopolitical interest in fostering life is that capital punishment came to be contested in the modern period and new forms of punishment were invented to replace it, most notably the prison. While the death penalty was abolished in most Western democracies by the 1970s, its practice had long since become rare. In those places where it is still legal and regularly practised today, such as the United States, it is widely criticized as backward and anachronistic. 4 In earlier eras, execution for murder or theft was understood as punishment for having broken the sovereign's law and for undermining his power. Crime was conceived as a personal attack on the sovereign rather than on the individual victims of the crime or on the security of the population as a whole. Punishment was the sovereign's counter-attack, his reaffirmation of power. In contrast, the current view of punishment is a "paying of one's debt to society ", while executions, where they are permitted at all, are justified in the name of security. A criminal condemned to death must be perceived as a threat to the population rather than to the ruler's power. For this reason serial killers are executed in the United States today but the president's political opponents are not. Capital punishment aside, there is little direct control over death under biopower. As Foucault notes, we now have the power to keep people alive when they should be dead and to decide when to "let them die" , or to regulate their lives even after, biologically speaking, they should be dead (2003 : 248-9 ) . We may thus choose to cease manag­ ing an individual's life by letting her die, or to not foster certain lives to begin with, but this is not the same thing as the sovereign right to kill. While a person might be allowed to die or her life may be disal­ lowed to the point of death, and while the state monitors the morbidity rate, you can be fairly sure that your death will not be claimed by the state, and that your life will be managed but not seized. This is why death is now privatized - it is, according to Foucault, "outside the . .

49

MICHEL FO U CA U LT: KEY CONCEPTS

power relationship" (ibid. : 248 ) . While we claim that sex is silenced and repressed, Foucault compellingly argues throughout The History of Sexuality that this is not the case and that we in fact talk about sex more than anything else; on the other hand, death today truly is taboo. Foucault thinks that the irony of this "disqualification of death" is that wars are bloodier than ever but are justified in the name of life. He writes : Yet wars were never a s bloody a s they have been since the nine­ teenth century, and all things being equal, never before did regimes visit such holocausts on their own populations. But this formida­ ble power of death . . . now presents itself as the counterpart of a power that exerts a positive influence on life, that endeavors to administer, optimize, and multiply it . . . Wars are no longer waged in the name of a sovereign who must be defended; they are waged on behalf of the existence of everyone ; entire populations are mobilized for the purpose of wholesale slaughter in the name of life necessity: massacres have become vital. (1990a: 13 7) The Holocaust of the Jews, along with the extermination of gypsies and the "euthanasia" of the mentally ill and persons with developmental disabilites, were justified under the Nazi regime as "racial hygiene", nec­ essary or beneficial to German flourishing. Nazi propaganda depicted Jews as a plague of rats that posed a threat to German well-being, and presented medical care for the mentally ill and disabled as a drain on German resources better used for those fit to survive. Indeed, despite the "disqualification of death" in the modern era, Foucault argues that there will be more genocides under biopower than under sovereign power, because biopower wants to manage the health of populations. When combined with racism, this management becomes cast as a con­ cern for the racial purity of a people. In Society Must Be Defended, Foucault argues that biopower is almost necessarily racist, since racism, broadly construed, is an "indispensable precondition" that grants the state the power to kill (2003 : 25 6). 5 Under such conditions, eradicating sub-groups of that population is perceived as a justifiable form of man­ aging and protecting a people. Foucault writes: "If genocide is indeed the dream of modern powers, this is not because of a recent return of the ancient right to kill, it is because power is situated and exercised at the level of life, the species, the race, and the large-scale phenomena of population" (1990a: 13 7). We can take the example of the recent US-led invasion of Iraq to illustrate the manner in which the modern biopolitical state justifies 50

BIOPOWER

mass killings in the name of life, and both produces and exploits racism in order to do so. The original justifications for the invasion of Iraq involved claims that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction and was affiliated with Al-Qaeda. The Bush and Blair administrations suggested that Iraq would use its weapons of mass destruction to attack the United States and its allies, affiliated as it was with the attacks of 9/1 1 . Anti­ Muslim and anti-Arab racism abounded in this period in the US and was exploited in the arguments for invading Iraq. In this way Iraq was pre­ sented as a racialized threat to American existence or to the Western way of life, and invasion of this country was deemed necessary to protect life in Western democracies. When no weapons of mass destruction and no link to Al-Qaeda were found, the Bush and Blair administrations shifted tactics, emphasizing the slaughters and massacres that Saddam Hus­ sein had committed against his own people, much like the oppression of women and girls in Afghanistan is exploited to justify the military incursions into this country. Over time these wars are recast as charity missions, undertaken not so much to protect lives in the West as to save innocent lives in the East. While critics point out that the alleged desires to save Iraqi lives and to liberate oppressed women are pretences, the important point is that we now need pretences such as these in order to justify war. We no longer pursue military invasions for the overt sake of glory, gain or conquest, or to defend the honour of the sovereign. While the ancient Romans could invade a foreign country for the undisguised purposes of occupying a land, enslaving a people and gaining access to resources, today we must mask our massacres as humanitarian efforts even while bringing about the deaths of thousands of civilians, turning millions more into refugees, and immediately securing the oil fields.

Soci a l Darwi n i s m a n d e ug e n ics

In the nineteenth century, Europeans and North Americans grappled with the effects of increased urbanization, including the steady growth of slums inhabited by an underclass of paupers, prostitutes and thieves, many of whom were sickly and, the middle class thought, lazy and immoral. Rates of crime, disease, mental illness, alcoholism, promiscu­ ity and prostitution were rampant in this segment of the population, which was, moreover, reproducing itself more quickly than the middle classes. The result was a growing fear among the bourgeoisie that the "dregs" of society would eventually overtake them. The middle classes in Western countries began to suspect that their race was degenerating, both because they were not reproducing quickly enough and because 51

MI C H EL FOU CAULT: KEY CON CEPTS

the lower class was reproducing too quickly. These fears were exac­ erbated in Britain when studies of the records of the height, weight and health of soldiers throughout the nineteenth century suggested "a progressive physical degeneracy of race" (Childs 200 1 : 1 ) . European exploration of non-Western countries also confronted Europeans with races they deemed inferior, but which, because they must have a com­ mon ancestry with Europeans in Adam and Eve, were believed to have degenerated over time, falling from their original nobility (ibid. ) . The possibility of nationwide racial degeneration was thus posed, and anxi­ ety mounted that Europeans could descend to the level of these "inferior races" if procreation patterns were not controlled. In response to these fears, the science of eugenics was born in the late nineteenth century in Britain with the works of the statistician Francis Galton, and reached its height in the first half of the twentieth century throughout the Western world. Galton drew on his cousin Charles Dar­ win's theory of natural selection and argued that human societies were preventing natural selection or the "survival of the fittest" by protecting the sick, the poor and the weak through welfare programmes, charity and medicine. He coined the term "eugenics" from the Greek roots eu (good or well) and genes (born), and described the science as "the study of all agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future generations" (Black 2004 : 1 8) . Social Darwin­ ists argued that the "survival of the fittest" human beings would come about naturally if welfare systems were simply withdrawn: although the poor would continue to have more children than the middle classes, this would be compensated for by higher mortality rates resulting from poverty and lack of medical care. As one Social Darwinist, Herbert Spencer, explains : It seems hard that an unskilfulness . . . should entail hunger upon the artisan. It seems hard that a laborer incapacitated by sickness . . . should have to bear the resulting privations. It seems hard that widows and orphans should be left to struggle for life or death. Nevertheless, when regarded not separately but in connexion with the interests of universal humanity, these harsh fatalities are seen to be full of beneficence. (Childs 200 1 : 2-3 ) Spencer thus suggests that nature be allowed to run its course, eliminat­ ing the weak from society. Individuals such as Spencer rejected the argu­ ment that improving the environment of the poor might reduce their rates of mental illness, infection, alcoholism, promiscuity and crime. While those advocating environmental reform suggested improvements 52

BIOPOWER

in education and health care for the urban poor, and thus argued for biopolitical interventions of a different order (carried out at the level of disciplinary incursions into the lives of disorderly and abnormal members of society), Social Darwinists opposed such methods, argu­ ing that they would only exacerbate the problem by helping to sustain those segments of society better left to die. While Spencer's approach is to let the poor and the weak die out through non-intervention, other eugenicists advocated more active tac­ tics. These tactics were divided into what were called "negative" and "positive" eugenics. "Negative eugenics", as the philosopher and eugen­ ist F. C. S. Schiller puts it, "aims at checking the deterioration to which the human stock is exposed, owing to the rapid proliferation of what may be called human weeds" (ibid. : 3 ) . This strategy entails preventing individuals and groups deemed "degenerate" from procreating through abortions, forced sterilization, incapacitation (such as locking up the mentally ill), "euthanasia" or, as in the case of Nazi Germany, genocide. Such "negative" tactics, however, can only prevent further deteriora­ tion; they cannot improve the species and so strategies of "positive eugenics" were simultaneously promoted. "Positive eugenics" involved encouraging or compelling "human flowers" to produce large families, for instance through economic stimuli. Abortion by "fit" women was illegal in Nazi Germany, and middle-class women who attempted to enter the work force were discouraged on the grounds that jobs outside the home were "race-destroying occupations" (ibid. : 7) . Eugenics thus attempts to improve the gene pool; however, what is meant by "improve" is inevitably socioculturally defined and has always been tainted by classism, racism and abilism. Early eugenicists were concerned with increasing the intelligence of the population, for instance, but this concern tended to promote births in the middle class while preventing them among the working classes. Racist eugenicists are opposed to miscegenation. With the Immigration Act of 1924, eugeni­ cists successfully argued against allowing "inferior stock" from southern and eastern Europe into the United States. Laws were written in the late 18 00s and early 1900s to prohibit the mentally ill from marrying and to allow them to be sterilized in psychiatric institutions. These laws were upheld by the Supreme Court in 1927 and were only abolished in the mid-twentieth century. As a result, 60,000 mentally ill Americans were sterilized in order to prevent them from passing on their genes. This is particularly problematic since what qualifies as "mental illness" is noto­ riously unstable and, as Foucault argues in works such as The History of' Madness (2006b) and Psychiatric Power (2006a) , has tended to describe social mores and norms rather than genuine medical conditions. 6 53

MICHEL FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

Social Darwinism and eugenics may be described as biopolitical movements since they involve strategies for managing the health and productivity of populations through interventions in natality and mor­ tality rates, mental and physical health, and immigration, even if what is taken to be "healthy " is highly problematic, entailing as it does preju­ dices ranging from abilism and classism to sexism, nationalism and racism. Following the Second World War, there has been a tendency to repress the fact that other countries besides Germany have histories of eugenics, histories which quietly continued long after the defeat of the Nazis (Childs 2001: 15 ) . Ladelle McWhorter not only traces the exten­ sive history of eugenics in the United States, however, but argues that the contemporary and mostly unquestioned pro-family movement in this country is a mere recasting and extension of the eugenics movement (McWhorter 2009). Eugenic uses of science also arguably continue in the cases of pro-family financial, social and political incentives, designer babies, genetic counselling, preemptive abortions, and the creation of "genius sperm banks" . Many of these examples entail the use of new scientific technology to improve the genes of individual babies and of the population as a whole while preventing babies deemed "unfit" from ever being born. These biopolitical practices thus further entrench the prejudices of an abilist society while continuing the goals of eugenics in manners which have become increasingly unbounded by the state.

N otes 1. For a Foucauldian study of how biopower and discipline control the care of one's body, see Bartky 1 9 8 8 ; for how disciplinary power controls diet, see Bordo (2003) and Heyes (200 6 ) ; for a Foucauldian study of how biopower controls housing choices and opportunities and the raising and education of children, see Feder ( 1 996, 2007). 2. In the second and third lectures of Security, Territory, Population, Foucault contrasts disciplinary mechanisms and security measures aimed at the level of population which, at the beginning of the first lecture, he calls "somewhat vaguely, bio-power" (2007: 1 ) . 3 . S e e Kukla (2005 : chs 2, 5 ) . 3 . For a n extended discussion of biopolitical interventions in the birthrate among these demographic groups in the United States, see McWhorter (2009). 4. Bedau, "The Case Against the Death Penalty" : www.skepticfiles.org/aclu/case_ aga.htm (accessed August 20 1 0) . 5 . Foucault writes of "racism against the abnormal" in this lecture, and hence is not limiting himself to racism based on skin colour in making these claims. 6. To take but one example, homosexuality was included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ofMental Disorders until 1 973 .

54

FOU R

Power/knowledg Ellen K. Feder

Foucault explicitly introduces the composite term, "power/knowledge" (pouvoir/savoir) in the middle, "genealogical" period of his work. At the same time, however, the concept of power/knowledge in many ways encompasses the entire corpus, characterizing the implicit project of his "archaeological" works, the explicit focus of the "genealogical", and the working out of the implications for living a good life in the later "ethical" work. To understand what Foucault means by power/knowledge we first have to engage in a little translation. Notice that when the term is used in philosophy written in English, the original French in which Foucault spoke and wrote often follows it. In French, there are different ways of expressing distinctive categories of knowledge which English speakers mark by qualifications such as "folk knowledge" or "book knowledge". In many of his earlier, archaeological works, Foucault is interested in investigating how a particular kind of implicit knowledge - the savoir - permeating a historical period, that is, the understanding that counts as the "common sense" of that time/place/people, shapes the explicit knowledge the connaissance that is institutionalized in the disci­ plines that make up the human sciences, including natural (e.g. biology) or social (e. g. psychology) science (Foucault 1 972 : 1 8 2-3 ) . As a noun, pouvoir i s most typically translated as "power", but i t is also the infinitive form of the verb meaning "to be able to", and is the most common way of saying "can" in Romance languages. In Foucault's work, pouvoir must be understood in this dual sense, as both "power" as English speakers generally take it (which could also be rendered as puissance or force in French), but also as a kind of potentiality, 55

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

capability or capacity. Power, Foucault tells us, must be understood to be more complex than a term like puissance conveys; it has multiple forms and can issue from "anywhere" . Foucault urges us not to think of power only in terms of its "old" monarchical form, as something an individual possesses or wields over another or others. For him power works through culture and customs, institutions and individuals. Like­ wise, its effects are also multiple, not simply negative or positive, but, as he puts it, "productive" : they are both positive and negative, unstable valuations that can be reversed through history. The composite "power/knowledge" is also not quite translatable. Lit­ erary theorist and translator Gayatri Spivak helpfully calls our attention to what she describes as the "homely verbiness of savoir in savoir-faire [a ready and polished kind of 'know-how', in English] , savoir-vivre [an understanding of social life and customs] into pouvoir", and suggests that regarded in this way: you might come up with something like this: if the lines of making sense of something are laid down in a certain way, then you are able to do only those things with that something that are possible within and by the arrangement of those lines. Pouvoir-savoir being able to do something - only as you are able to make sense ( 1993 : 3 4) of it.

-

The kind of knowledge to which Foucault directs us with this term, then, is one that has no clear source, but that a genealogical analysis an examination of the historical conditions of possibility - illuminates, describing the accidents of history that result in particular consolida­ tions of what counts as truth or knowledge. It is not the knowledge that is decreed by some authoritative body "from on high", but is more precisely described in the passive voice : it is the kind of knowledge that is "recognized as true", "known to be the case" . For Foucault, this knowledge can only exist with the support of arrangements of power, arrangements that likewise have no clear origin, no person or body who can be said to "have" it. An example illustrates many of the dimensions of power/knowledge as they are taken up in Foucault's work. It will also help to clarify how the concept of power/knowledge is salient throughout the dif­ ferent periods into which scholars generally divide Foucault's corpus: the early (archaeological) texts where, Foucault later says, power/ knowledge was present even if unnamed ; 1 the middle (genealogical) texts where the concept power/knowledge is explicitly introduced; and finally the late (ethical) reflections, where power understood as 56

POWER/ KNOWLED G E

cap acity becomes more central. In what follows, I examine the concept of sexual difference and its enforcement. Despite his famous interest in questions concerning "sexuality", Foucault does not take up the matter of sexual difference directly; nevertheless, Foucault's work has been highly influential among scholars and activists over the past sev­ eral decades who have done so, and have compellingly demonstrated how the tools offered by Foucault's analysis can help us to clarify and deepen our understanding of a critical, yet surprisingly under-studied, concept.

Exa m p le: d ivid i ng the sexes, or boys

will be boys

We take for granted sexual difference. It seems obvious that men and women, boys and girls, make up the world's populace. We may rec­ ognize that sexual difference can be understood somewhat differently across the globe; some cultures have standards for masculine and femi­ nine behaviour that differ from others. But there remains under the blan­ ket of social distinctions what we take to be a brute biological or genetic "fact" of sexual difference. Common sense a kind of unquestioned knowledge - tells us that this sexual division into male and female is true, how things are. But if this difference is so obvious we might ask why the distinction between the sexes requires enforcement. Take the example of four-year-old Nathan who is teased by his class­ mates because he enjoys playing "like a girl", dressing up in high heels and dresses instead of like a cowboy, enjoying play with baby dolls instead of trucks. Perhaps we could say that the boy suffers the teasing of his preschool classmates because his play violates the other children's common sense. "You can't be a little girl" (Rekers & Varni 1977: 428 ) , the other children tell Nathan. What happens to Nathan is not unusual among preschoolers. But Nathan's story is distinctive because his is a published case, among the first of a number of cases, of a condition that was first discussed in US psychiatry in the early 1970s. "Gender Identity Disorder", or GID, continues to be actively treated today. In the paper in which Nathan's story is featured, the authors recount how Nathan's diagnosis led to a long period of therapy designed to help him accept that as a boy he was expected to play with "boys' toys". His parents were instructed to observe him and offer positive reinforcement for playing with gender­ appropriate toys, and to ignore him when he played with inappropri­ ate toys. Eventually, the case study reports, Nathan was given a wrist counter and told to press the counter when he played with boys' toys 57

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KE Y CONCEPTS

but not when playing with girls' toys. When he accumulated enough points he received a prize. Reading the story of Nathan through the theoretical lens of Foucault, it is striking how closely Nathan's treatment regimen corresponds to the levels and character of surveillance Foucault describes in Discipline and Punish, and to the levels of surveillance the Panoptic structure organ­ izes. Most accounts of the Panopticon focus on the prisoners (or mad­ men, paupers, schoolchildren) in the machine, those who are isolated and are the clear objects of the anonymous gaze signified by the invisible inhabitant(s) of the central tower. The objective of panopticism is the "internalization" of the authoritative gaze, where one : subjected to a field of visibility . . . assumes responsibility for the constraints of power; he makes them play spontaneously upon himself; he inscribes in himself the power relation in which he simultaneously plays both roles; he becomes the principle of his own subjection. (Foucault 1 979 : 202-3 ) But among the many lessons of panopticism is that the power that seems focused on one individual is in fact "distributed" throughout the structure, so that every individual is at the same time both "object" and "subject" of this power: the prisoner is "watched", but is being trained to watch himself, to be his own inspector. The inspector is by definition the "watcher", and yet he, too, is the object of a gaze: his performance as watcher is ever under scrutiny. The Panopticon is Foucault's best lesson in unsettling the way we typically conceive power and its operation. Foucault's analysis points us to ways that power can be exercised from unexpected places. As the study reports the succession of events, it is not Nathan 's distress -- over his desire to play with girls' toys, or the teasing he faces - or worry by his parents or teacher about his behav­ iour that brings him to the team of psychologists and researchers who subject him to treatment; it is, rather, the other children 's teasing that distresses the teacher, who alerts the parents, who finally bring Nathan to treatment. It may seem obvious that children's interaction with one another is an important dimension of their psychosocial development, but the authority the children's voices command is arresting. We could speculate that the parents, teacher and treatment team see something important, even "natural", about the other children's intolerance of Nathan's behaviour. Viewing children as natural arbiters of gender norms might capture something of the intuitive sense of the adults involved in the case of Nathan, but this perspective calls for analysis of how such authority is vested in Nathan's four-year-old peers. 58

POWER/ KNOWL E D GE

In Discipline and Punish, Foucault contrasts disciplinary power with th e ordinary understanding of power as something that can be "pos­ sessed as a thing" and brandished against another (1979 : 177 ; see als o 1990a: 94 ). Disciplinary power, according to Foucault, is instead an expression of power that is associated with what he calls, in The Archaeology of Knowledge, the "assignment" of subjective positions (1972: 95), whereby individuals are allotted roles in the social world, positions that provide different possibilities for the exercise of power. The power that one can exercise as parent, simply by virtue of being a parent - power that is supported by society and by law - is one good example, but so is the power that is exercised by a bureaucrat in the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) . It is not that the individual in one or the other of these positions "is" powerful in Foucaultian terms, but that different positions individuals take up or are assigned afford specific arenas for the exercise of power. Once an individual no longer occupies a given position - the parent goes to school to finish his college degree and at least for some part of the day occupies the position of student, or the clerk at the DMV goes home after a day of work - the power associated with that position can no longer be exercised. In the first volume of The History of Sexuality, Foucault clarifies that "power is not an institution, and not a structure ; neither is it a certain strength we are endowed with; it is the name that one attributes to a complex strategical situation in a particular society " (1990a: 9 3 ) . The story of a little boy who is teased in the playground and becomes a psychological case-study illustrates how power relations are distributed widely among young children, teachers and mental health professionals, forming what Foucault described as a "dense web that passes through apparatuses and institutions, without being localized in them" (ibid. : 9 6 ) . Power is for Foucault inaccurately described as issuing "from above" or "outside" ; instead, i t i s more instructive t o understand first the way it "comes from below" (ibid. : 94). In Bentham's design of the Panopticon, the occupants of the central tower take up positions of surveillance vis-a-vis each of the inmates (and indeed, of one another) . Nathan's classmates are similarly enjoined, enlisted in a panoptic apparatus that operates to ensure properly gen­ dered subjects. If the exercise of the classmates' gaze is evidenced by their teasing, it should be counted among the "essential techniques" of disciplinary power. Foucault describes such techniques as: always meticulous, often minute techniques, but they defined a certain mode of detailed political investment of the body, a "new micro-physics of power" [that] had constantly reached out to 59

MICHEL FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

ever broader domains, as if . . . intended to cover the entire social (1979 : 13 9) bod� Loosed from its discursive field, the children's forthright announce­ ment to Nathan that "You can't be a little girl" resists characterization as a subtle expression of power. Conceived within the terms of its field, however, their blunt repudiation is precisely the sort of "capillary intervention" (1990a: 84) that epitomizes a microphysics of power. It is consequential not for its sheer force but for the disciplinary effects it can provoke, that is, for its ability to "reach out to ever broader domains" . The children's intervention in the case of Nathan activates a complex machinery of interlocking institutional interests - embodied by his teacher, his parents and an entire team of psychologists, assistants and technicians - functioning to subject Nathan to a "field of visibility" whereby he will learn, as his peers have already learned, to assume "responsibility for the constraints of power . . . [to] become the princi­ ple of his own subjection" (1979 : 202-3 ) . Located at the extremities of this "productive network of power which runs through the whole social body " (19 8 0d : 119) , the children's exposure of Nathan's viola­ tion is instrumental in two linked ways: it rouses the apparatus that will therapeutically draft Nathan into his prescribed role and correct the parental missteps that resulted in Nathan's deviation; it also provides an opportunity to produce new knowledge, that is, new "understand­ ings", new "truths" , not only about Nathan, but about the increasing numbers of children - and their parents2 - who would be identified under this new disorder. 3 Bentham himself understood that "panopticism" functions not only to circulate power, as it clearly does in the example of the prison, but also to produce knowledge. Foucault's formulation of the term "power/ knowledge" is developed from Bentham's own expectation that the Panopticon would serve as a "laboratory . . . [that] could be used as a machine to carry out experiments, to alter behavior, to train and correct individuals" (Foucault 1979 : 203 ) . It is a "privileged place for experi­ ments on men, and for analyzing with complete certainty the transfor­ mations that may be obtained from them" (ibid. : 204) . "Thanks to its mechanisms of observation, " Foucault reflects, the Panopticon "gains in efficiency and in the ability to penetrate into men's behavior; knowl­ edge follows advances of power, discovering new objects of knowledge over all the surfaces on which power is exercised" (ibid. : 204). But while many would understand in narrow terms the new "object" that is cre­ ated to be the "gender disordered" child of the late twentieth century, Foucault's advancement of the analysis of power/knowledge clarifies 60

POWER/ KNOWL ED G E

that the objects must be taken to be more widely dispersed, that no one, in fact, escapes the objectification that comes, in the nineteenth century, to be centred around the notion of sexual identity.

Normal izi ng sex(u a l ity)

Foucault most famously elaborated on this expression of power/ knowledge in the first volume of The History of Sexuality (tellingly titled in French as La Valente de Savoir, "The Will to Knowledge"), the book that immediately follows Discipline and Punish. In The History of Sexuality Foucault makes the remarkable claim that "the 'question' of sex" becomes in the late nineteenth century the most important question "in both senses : as interrogation and problema­ tization, and as the need for confession and integration into a field of rationality " ( 1 990a: 69). A whole host of technologies are born to regulate what becomes understood as a person's (sexual) "essence" , the truth of a n individual, who he or she "really" i s . The most sali­ ent of these technologies is confession, first religious (as mandated by early Christianity), then psychological (in the nineteenth-century science of psychoanalysis) and finally political, as the mandate to pro­ duce information becomes the ground for what became known as population control.4 What unites these different technologies is the concern with identifying (and so, Foucault explains, what in fact turns out itself to create, as a category, or object of understanding) a whole variety of "perversions" born during this time, different ways to vio­ late the multiplying rules governing the important distinction between licit and illicit, normal and abnormal. Of all the technologies, medicine comes to play the most important role in the development of "the norm", dictating, for example, what constitutes normal marital relations. Children's sexual activity also became an object of keen interest and concern, not only because of a perceived need to "detect" violations of new norms, but, as we saw in the example of the case of Nathan, to be on the alert for problems with parents' rearing of their children : Wherever there was the chance that [masturbation] might appear, devices of surveillance were installed ; traps were laid for compel­ ling admissions . . . parents and teachers were alerted, and left with the suspicion that all children were guilty, and with the fear of being themselves at fault if their suspicions were not sufficiently strong . . . [parents'] conduct was prescribed and their pedagogy 61

MICHE L FOUCAU LT: KEY CONCEPTS

recodified; an entire medical-sexual regime took hold of the fam­ (Foucault 1 9 90a: 42) ily milieu. Further, a whole class of deviant individuals comes to be identified at this time. Among the zoophiles (those who engage in sex with non-human animals), auto-monosexualists (those who are only able to experience erotic pleasure by themselves), gynecomasts (men with atypically large breasts), presbyophiles (those who engage in sex with the elderly) and dysparauenistic women (those for whom sexual intercourse is painful), perhaps the most lasting category of individual is "the homosexual", a new species of individual "born" in 1 8 70 (ibid. : 43 ) . 5 I n the late-twentieth-century diagnosis o f the gender dysphoric child there is embedded a whole history of power/knowledge that involves a complex of elements that come to be designated in Foucault's work by the term "normalization" . Normalization, the institutionalization of the norm, of what counts as normal, indicates the pervasive standards that structure and define social meaning. Norms are at once everywhere and nowhere. They are obvious when we are talking about the sorts of standards against which one can be tested with respect to intelligence or body mass, for example. But they are less conspicuous when they are unspoken, what we may even take to be natural or understand as our own (what Foucault would see as their "internalization"), as is often the case with norms concerning gender. We may think that medicine has always played the role it has in shaping our understanding of the norm, but Foucault's earlier his­ tory of medicine, The Birth of the Clinic, suggests otherwise. In the ancient period, conceptions of health were understood not in terms of a single standard against which one should be measured, but rather in terms of the harmonious functioning of the individual. The role of medicine was to provide "techniques for curing ills" (Foucault 1 9 75 : 34). This view of medicine persisted into the eighteenth century, at which time, according to Foucault, medicine begins to fashion a con­ cept of "the healthy man, that is, a study of the non-sick man, and a definition of the model man" (ibid.) . At this point, medicine assumes a "normative posture, which authorizes it not only to distribute advice as to healthy life, but also to dictate the standards for physi­ cal and moral relations of the individual and the society in which he lives" (ibid. ) . This is a crucial change in the understanding of medi­ cine, by the profession and by the public at large, paving the way for the shift that will take place from a focus on health understood as qualities specific to an individual, to normality, a standard imposed from without. 62

POWER/ KNOWLED G E

In the example of Nathan, and of his parents, there is an obvious effort to correct the behaviour that is regarded as abnormal. The tech­ niques described by the case study enforcing "good" behaviour with reward and punishing bad behaviour with being ignored, asking him to regulate himself with a wrist counter exemplify the sorts of practices Foucault characterized in Discipline and Punish with respect to the operation of the Panopticon. For Foucault it is not accurate to describe the aim of these practices in terms of "repression". Instead, the aim of the panoptic expression of power/knowledge is to enforce a standard that it is at the same time trying to establish by comparing individuals against one another, measuring their differences and then asserting the truth of the standard it "discovers" as the rule ( 1 979 : 1 8 2-3 ) . Practices such as these exemplify why Foucault makes use of this composite term, power/knowledge : the expression of each term, power and knowledge, are at every point implicated with one another.

Power/kn owl edge a nd resi sta nce

In looking at the operation of power/knowledge, it can be difficult to remember that for Foucault power should not be understood solely in the negative terms of repression or constraint. In Discipline and Punish, Foucault insists that: we must cease once and for all to describe the effects of power in negative terms : it "excludes, " it "represses," it "censors, " it "abstracts, " it "masks," it "conceals. " In fact, power produces; it produces reality; it produces domains of objects and rituals of truth. The individual and the knowledge that may be gained of him belong to this production. ( 1 979 : 1 94) While many seek to resist the effects of normalizing power that have wrought so much harm (arguably to us all, albeit in different ways, and to different effect), for Foucault the very effort of resistance must be understood itself as an expression of power. In the first volume of The History of Sexuality, Foucault returns to the exemplary case of homosexuality to make this point: There is no question that the appearance in nineteenth century psychiatry, jurisprudence, and literature of a whole series of dis­ courses on the species and subspecies of homosexuality, inver­ sion, pederasty, and "psychic hermaphroditism" made possible a 63

MICHEL FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

strong advance of social control . . . but it also made possible the formation of a "reverse" discourse: homosexuality began to speak in its own behalf, to demand that its legitimacy or "naturality " be acknowledged, often in the same vocabulary, using the same categories by which it was medically disqualified. ( 1 990a: 1 0 1 ) What does Foucault mean b y "reverse" discourse ? I f the "normali­ zation" of the homosexual by nineteenth-century medicine marked the production of a new conception of abnormality, and with it the abnormal individual, twentieth-century resistance to this process must likewise be understood in these terms, but in reverse; as an effort, in other words, to recast normalcy, to understand as normal this new per­ son the homosexual. The recasting of normalcy would mean making use of the medical category, not in the sense of the one constricting norm against which all of us should be judged, but to understand homosexual orientation in the "older" sense of the individual standard of health that continues to be active in, and provide validation of, current conceptions of normality. (Even as there are clear standards of health of all kinds, it still makes sense for us to talk about what is healthy "for me" . ) This nor­ malizing power that "made up" the "homosexual person" as an object of psychiatric medicine also produced "improbably", "spontaneously" , a s Foucault puts i t (ibid. : 96), the previously unthinkable concept o f "gay pride", which l e d t o the depathologization of homosexuality in the United States in 1 9 73 . The story o f the depathologization of homosexuality, of its removal as a diagnosis from the handbook of psychiatric disorders called The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ofMental Disorders (DSM), is remark­ able in many ways (among them: it was the first, and to date the only, time that a diagnosis was removed from the DSM as a result of a vote by the membership of the American Psychiatric Association) (Bayer 1 9 8 1 ) . But it is also notable because the first edition of the DSM that did not include homosexuality as a diagnosis (DSM III, published in 1 9 8 0) introduced Gender Identity Disorder (GID) of children as a diagnosis. The "risk" of what are characterized as untreated "problems" of gender identity, according to the most influential researcher responsible for the diagnosis, is the eventual assumption of a homosexual identity (Rekers et al. 1 977: 4-5 ) . 6 There are at least two lessons to be learned from the replacement of homosexuality with GID. One lesson concerns the role of children in the "society of normalization", something that Foucault addresses in some detail in the first volume of The History of Sexuality. For the 64

P OWER/ KNOWL ED G E

purposes of understanding the operation of power/knowledge, it is a les son in how resistance, expressed as a "reverse discourse", can itself be resisted: psychiatry found, in the diagnosis of GID, a new way to pathologize (or maintain the pathologization of) homosexuality, a new way, in other words, to make it known as an object of psychological intervention, to dictate its truth and to manage the treatment of those so labelled, both medically as well as socially. As a new revision of the DSM is currently in preparation (scheduled for publication in 2 0 1 2) there has been a great deal of controversy about the diagnosis of GID, with many activists and mental health practitioners, as well as some academics, arguing in favour of remov­ ing the diagnosis, just as homosexuality was removed more than two decades ago. And yet, removal of the diagnosis could inhibit those mental health practitioners who have made use of the diagnosis to treat the distress that gender nonconforming, or "gender variant", children may experience as a result of familial or societal intolerance, a form of counter-attack that validates gender variant behaviour. This approach to treatment is itself a form of resistance to the "usual" understanding of the diagnosis of mental disorder, which locates the problem in the indi­ vidual so diagnosed. And while many, perhaps even most, practitioners continue to see GID in the terms dictated by the DSM, which perceives mental disorders "in" the individual, there are those who understand the problem to lie instead in the hostile conditions that gender variant children may face. The implicit rationale of those who approach treat­ ment of gender variation in this way is similar to that made about a variety of forms of disability (is the problem in the bodies of those with disabilities, or in the material conditions that make mobility or com­ munication difficult? ) ? What some mental health practitioners have done in their practice is turn psychiatric treatment on its head, seeing a child whose gender behaviour does not correspond neatly with her assigned sex as suffering not from a gender identity disorder, but rather as a victim of an intolerance of gender variation that should instead be the focus of intervention. Seeing the diagnosis in this way would mean, practically speaking, that it should be cast differently (for example, using terms like "Gender Variance" rather than "Gender Identity Disorder", which is an unneces­ sary and furthermore misleading term, because it suggests that psycho­ logical identity is the problem that needs to be corrected) . Rather than remove the diagnosis, another possibility could be to rename and refor­ mulate the diagnosis to better reflect the life goals and distress experi­ enced by individuals, and furthermore direct treatment toward the most appropriate means of alleviating distress and promoting flourishing. 65

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

Beyond the change of name, an interesting and promising recom­ mendation may be to make use of complementary diagnostic codes known as "V-codes". V-codes are defined in the International Clas­ sification of Disorder (ICD, a global handbook with which the DSM is meant to correspond) as "other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention" (World Health Organization 2004 ) . Some V-codes are diagnoses that have not yet been formally established as diagnoses through appropriate research (and in this sense it would seem that GID as it stands would qualify) . Other V-codes are "conditions" that are located outside the individual, but that nevertheless affect the individual's functioning or well-being. An ''Acculturation Problem" (V62.4), for example, can include a variety of problems adjusting to a new culture, a problem that is cast not as "the individual's" problem; an "Occupational Problem" (V62.2), which the DSM conservatively describes as "job dissatisfaction", could include distress as a result of working in a hostile environment where again, the problem cannot be understood properly to belong to an individual. With respect to GID in children, probably the most typical problem would be described as a "Parent-Child Relational Problem" (V6 1 .20), but it could also include a "Phase of Life Problem" (V62. 8 9) . Including V-codes in the very structure of the diagnosis would provide a more accurate picture of the problems that gender variant children face, and furthermore indicate to practitioners that the object of treatment needs to be dif­ ferently understood. 8 The use of V-codes in the case of GID could (indeed, would) entail disciplinary effects, but rather than seeking to activate these effects in the life of an individual subjected to treatment, these effects could promote - among therapists and society at large - a different story to tell about sexual difference. The possibility of making use of V-codes in the diagnosis of GID is one that is consistent with Foucault's analysis of power/knowledge as a pervasive apparatus from which there is no escape, but that can at the same time be resisted or "reversed". Possibilities such as these become the focus of Foucault's attention in his later, "ethical" works.

Conc l us i o n: power/knowledge a n d tec h nolog ies of the self

After the first volume of The History of Sexuality, Foucault does not explicitly make use of the term "power/knowledge". Yet the focus on "technologies of the self " in Foucault's ethics provides what could well be understood as an elaboration of the concept of power/knowledge in the "positive" terms that are only suggested in the middle work. 66

POWER/ KNOWL ED G E

He is still interested in the notion of subjectivity (assujettissement), both in the sense of "making a subject" and "making subject to" . He is also concerned with disciplinary practices. Rather than focusing, as he does in Discipline and Punish, on how disciplinary practices pro­ mote normalization, he is far more concerned with how these practices can be put to work to resist normalization. At this point in Foucault's analysis he turns to the subject's relationship to her self, that is, her own subjectivity. One of the most important ways that knowledge is constituted is through the asking of questions. Investigation of the kinds of questions that can be asked within a given historical period was arguably the focus of Foucault's earlier, archaeological works, and the use to which particular questions could be put and to what effect, the focus of the genealogical works. In the later, ethical works, Foucault turns to the kind of knowledge resulting from reflection, "an exercise of oneself in the activity of thought", or askesis ( 1 99 0a: 9). Practices of thought that could be promoted in gender variant children, their parents and the mental health workers charged with their care could include a reframing of the questions posed. Interrogating "the problem" of gen­ der variance, for example, could provide an opportunity, as Foucault recounts, to "learn to what extent the effort to think one's own history can free thought from what it silently thinks, and so enable it to think differently " (ibid. ) . Seeing the diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder not as a disorder located in the individual, but as a larger problem of intolerance and the suffering it causes would indeed exemplify how this exercise of thought could, as Foucault remarked in an interview, "show people that they are much freer than they feel, that people accept as truth, as evidence, some themes which have been built up at a certain moment during history, and that this so-called evidence can be criticized and destroyed" ( 1 9 8 8 : 1 0) . Our understanding o f madness, standards o f "health", "normal" sexuality: all of these, Foucault finally argues, are consequences of a complex operation of power/knowledge of which his own works are also a part. His aim, in narrating the histories that make up his work, is not to uncover "the timeless and essential secret . . . behind things" but rather to expose the greater secret: the "secret that they have no essence or that their essence was fabricated in piecemeal fashion" ( 1 977: 1 42). With his own projects, he is interested, as he put it in an interview, in exploring "the possibility of a discourse that would be both true and strategically effective, the possibility of an historical truth which could have political effect" ( 1 9 8 0f: 64 ) .

67

MICHEL FOUCAULT: KEY CON C EPTS

N otes 1. One way power/knowledge manifests itself in Foucault's early work is in the closely related concept of the episteme, elaborated in The Order of Things ( 1 9 73 ) . An episteme , the prevailing order of knowledge particular to a histori·· cal period, accounts for the understanding of how things are connected in the overall "field" of understanding or knowledge; it describes the conditions under which what is taken to be knowledge is possible. 2. Parents of children with GID have themselves been diagnosed with different psychopathologies, and become themselves "cases" for further investigation (see e.g. Coates 1 9 9 0) . 3 . The incidence o f the disorder has ranged over the years. At the outset i t was understood as very rare, affecting perhaps 1 in 1 00,000 children (Rekers et al. 1 977: 4-5 ) ; by 1 9 9 0 clinicians had concluded that it "may occur in two percent to five percent of the general population" (Bradley & Zucker 1 9 9 0 : 478), a finding revised by these same authors nine years later, who liken its frequency to a disorder such as autism, itself a diagnosis with an estimated incidence rate that has steadily increased over the past decades (Zucker & Bradley 1 9 9 9 : 24) . For Foucault these differences would indicate changing historical needs t o justify diagnosis and treatment. 4. Interventions by the state in matters such as population control are an example of what Foucault called "biopower". For discussion of this distinctive form of power, which must also be seen as an expression of power/knowledge, see Chapter 3 on biopower in this volume. 5. For a detailed treatment of the history of the "invention" of homosexuality, see Katz ( 1 99 5 ) . 6. Later in the development o f the diagnosis, perhaps even greater risk o f untreated GID is the assumption of a transsexual identity (Bradley & Zucker 1 99 0 : 482). 7. See, for example, Fine & Asch ( 1 9 8 8 ) . 8 . This could also b e seen i n light of the idea of "exteriorizing" a problem faced by an individual or a family, a process that allows the emergence of a different meaning, "the development of an alternative story", as the psychologist Michael White, himself a close reader of Foucault, has put it (see e.g. White & Epston 1 99 0 : 39).

68

PA R T I I

m

F IVE

uca It's

nee Todd May

The concept of freedom is an elusive one in philosophy. It lies at the

centre of at least two very different sets of philosophical problems. One concerns the metaphysical status of human beings. The other concerns their political status. And, to make matters more complicated, Michel Foucault's perspective on freedom lies within neither set of problems. It does, however, interact with and complicate them. What I propose to do here, then, is to approach Foucault's own approach to freedom in three stages. First, I will discuss the two notions of freedom that characterize traditional philosophy. Then I will turn to Foucault's con­ ception of freedom, showing how it interacts with those traditional notions. Finally, in order to get a better sense of all this, I will briefly contrast his conception of freedom with that of another subtle thinker of freedom, Maurice Merleau-Ponty. We might call the two traditional conceptions of freedom meta­ physical and political. The term metaphysical is somewhat loaded, however, so it might be best to be clear about what we mean by it before we proceed. Metaphysics has been thought to concern the ulti­ mate nature of reality. It concerns what there is, or what the first or founding principles are of what there is. In that sense, it can also be characterized by the term ontology. One area of focus in metaphysics has been with the relation of mind and body. This is because if reality ultimately is made up of two different kinds of stuff - mental stuff and physical stuff - the question of their relationship becomes a central one, as it has been at least since Descartes. And among the questions that this question concerning the relationship between mind and body raises is whether or not the mind can control the body. That question 71

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has evolved into the question of free will, a question we will return to in a moment. The loaded character of the term "metaphysics" emerged over the course of the twentieth century under the influence of the thought of Martin Heidegger. For Heidegger, the entirety of Western philosophy is characterized by what he called metaphysics. Metaphysics, in his use of the term, is related to but not the same thing as metaphysics as we have just seen it. For Heidegger, the ultimate question for thought is that of Being. The problem, in his eyes, is that Being has been interpreted throughout most of Western philosophy in terms of beings. Being has been thought of as just another type of being. So, when we ask about the nature of reality, when we ask what there is, we wind up asking what kinds of beings there are. This approach neglects the question of Being itself. So when Heidegger uses the term "metaphysics", he is referring to a particular approach to philosophy that has forgotten philosophy 's ultimate question, that of Being, in favour of questions about beings. Heidegger's use of the term "metaphysics" has been enormously influential, particularly in the thought of recent French philosopher Jacques Derrida and his followers. For the purposes of this essay, how­ ever, we can leave this use to the side. What we mean by metaphysical freedom does not have to do with the question of Being or of beings, but with that of free will. (Philosophers influenced by the Heidegger/ Derrida trajectory may accuse me of engaging in metaphysics in their sense. That is a debate that will have to await another occasion.) What, then, is metaphysical freedom? It is something that human beings may or may not have. Those who endorse the idea of metaphysi­ cal freedom have very different views of what that freedom consists in, but all agree that whatever it is, it involves something that resists our being determined. To understand metaphysical freedom, then, one must understand the doctrine of determinism. What, then, is determin­ ism? It is the view that human beings are in control of none of their actions or thoughts. Whatever we do, its source can be found outside of our conscious control. There are many different types of determinism. Calvinists adopt a religious view called predestination. This is the view that God has determined everything that is going to happen, and that human life is merely a playing out of God's script. Genetic determin­ ists think that everything about who we will be and how we will react to things has been coded into our genes. Alternatively, behaviourists hold that our environment wholely shapes who we are ; we are nothing more than the products of positive and negative reinforcement. What all these views have in common is the idea that people do not control 72

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any aspect of their lives. They are the product of forces over which they have no influence . Those, by contrast, who hold that there is metaphysical freedom deny that human life is entirely determined. Here there are many dif­ ferent views, not only in what metaphysical freedom might consist in, but in how much of it we actually have. Some, though very few, philoso­ phers hold that we are entirely free in every decision we make. Most hold a less radical doctrine. What characterizes all views of metaphysical freedom, however, is simply the denial that we are entirely determined. Humans, unless they are psychologically damaged, have some conscious control over their thought and their behaviour. Political freedom is distinct from metaphysical freedom. Political freedom concerns the liberties one does or does not have as a member of a particular society. Freedom of speech, for instance, is a political freedom. People in the UK (at least informally) and (decreasingly so) in the US have it; people in Burma do not. Political freedom is not, as metaphysical freedom is, a doctrine about human nature. It is instead a characterization of particular elements in a society. Metaphysical and political freedom are conceptually distinct. One can imagine people possessing one kind of freedom without having any of the other. On the one hand, one could be metaphysically free without any type of political liberty. For example, let us assume that people are not entirely determined in their behaviour. Someone who was being held as a political prisoner would, under that assumption, be metaphysically but not politically free. On the other hand, if we assume that people are entirely determined in their behaviour, then in a society that afforded many political liberties they would be politically but not metaphysically free. This conceptual distinction is characteristic of the philosophical tra­ dition. Perhaps, however, it is a little too neat. Perhaps it serves not so much to clarify concepts as instead to obfuscate reality. After all, cannot one imagine, for instance, that a sustained lack of political freedom in a society would limit the kinds of things people would be able to do, even if they were suddenly liberated ? Behaviourists argue that we are entirely determined by our environment. We do not have to go quite that far to recognize that what we call our metaphysical freedom might be constrained by environmental factors, among them a lack of political freedom. After all, we have observed over the past several decades the difficulty people have in exercising political freedoms when they have been held for generations under conditions of political subjugation. The theorist of metaphysical freedom might argue here that a lack of political freedom does not compromise the existence of metaphysical 73

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freedom. Their claim would be that metaphysical freedom is something all humans possess. People who are politically liberated do not gain or lose any of their metaphysical freedom. They are simply displaying an ignorance of how to utilize this metaphysical freedom in the service of their newly gained political freedom. There is something about this response, however, that seems to miss the point. If we want to know what people's lives are like, what they can and cannot do, then it is perhaps not entirely helpful to be told that, regardless of their particular conditions, they are metaphysically free. What most people are interested in is not whether they are uncon­ strained in some abstract sense, but what options they might have in a more concrete one. That is to say, if people have been reinforced to be a certain way over a long period of time, the claim that they do not have to be will ring empty if all that is meant is that there is something about being human that is not entirely subject to those reinforcements. What would be of more interest to them would be to understand the character of their particular constraints, how those constraints affect who they are and what they do, and what they might do to liberate themselves from them. It is at this precise point that the thought of Michel Foucault becomes relevant in thinking about freedom. Foucault does not defend any form of metaphysical freedom. Neither does he deny metaphysical freedom. He is often taken to be doing the latter, because he describes a number of constraints that have bound us. However, the constraints he describes, as he insists over and over again, are not metaphysical constraints but historically given ones. They are constraints that can be overcome. The overcoming of these constraints, however, is not a metaphysical or philosophical exercise. It is a political one. To put the point another way, Foucault neither defends nor denies metaphysical freedom. He assumes something like it in order for political resistance to take place. However, his interest does not lie there but rather in the question of the specific constraints that are part of our historical legacy. He would like to know what they are, how they came to be that way, and what their effects are. It is only then that we can liberate ourselves from them. As he writes in one of his last published works, ''After all, what would be the passion for knowledge if it resulted only in a certain amount of knowledgeable­ ness and not, in one way or another and to the extent possible, in the knower's straying afield of himself? " (Foucault 1990b: 8 ) . Foucault did not publish any books o n freedom. H e has n o sus­ tained reflections on freedom, either metaphysical or political. When he invokes the term or the concept of freedom, it is almost always in a context of a discussion of some other matter. Nevertheless, one can 74

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fairly say that, from one end of his career to the other, the question of freedom motivates his work. Not the question, ''Are we free ? " Instead, the question, "How are we historically constrained and what might we do about it? " And, although Foucault had little to say about the second part of this question, he was very dear about his role regarding the first part. His role was not to tell us what to do : that is, to offer up a new set of constraints. Rather, it was to help us (and himself) understand our particular historical constraints and, moreover, understand that those constraints are nothing more than historical. In that vein, he once wrote, There is an optimism that consists in saying that things couldn't be better. My optimism would consist in saying that so many things can be changed, fragile as they are, more arbitrary than self-evident, more a matter of complex, but temporary, historical circumstances than with inevitable anthropological constraints. ( 1 990d: 15 6) Up to this point, we have been discussing freedom in a very general way. However, if Foucault's approach is a fruitful one, we need to move from broad philosophical reflections on freedom to situated, historical analyses of our particular situation. That, of course, is what Foucault's writings do. In order to see the implicit role freedom plays in these works, let us briefly consider an example. Discipline and Punish is Foucault's history of the rise of prisons, especially (although not solely) in France. It describes the transition from torture to rehabilitation, passing through a phase that has one foot in each. During the period of torture, crimes were punished only sporadically, but severely. Every crime was considered an offence against the sovereign, an offence that was quite literally an attack against the sovereign's body politic. This offence had to be countered by an overwhelming punishment against the body of the criminal, one that would re-establish the power and standing of the sovereign. Thus, torture. Torture was, in many ways, an ineffective method of punishment. It was costly, unevenly applied, and often generated sympathy for the criminal. With the rise of capitalism and the corresponding focus on property crimes, a more efficient system of punishment was needed. Foucault tells a complex story about the rise of the prison as a single method of dealing with this problem. For our purposes, what is relevant in this story is the emergence of a gradual shift of focus from crime to criminal. Instead of punishing crimes, a system arose that treated crimes as expressions of criminality. What needed to be treated, then, 75

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was the criminal behind the crime. Doing that required more advanced techniques of surveillance and intervention, which had been developing independently of the penal system in monasteries, hospitals and the military. These techniques were merged in the closed environment of the prison, where one could constantly monitor and intervene on the body of the incarcerated. The prison was the place where what Foucault calls docile bodies were created, bodies that were both efficient in per­ formance and obedient to authority. What was forged in the prison did not remain there. Techniques of surveillance and intervention have diffused throughout society. The former are more in the news these days, with the emergence of tech­ nologies such as surveillance cameras all over London and wiretapping in the United States. The latter have spread more quietly but no less effectively. From human resource departments in every mid-size to large corporation to the profusion of school counsellors and social workers, families and individuals are constantly exposed to psychological moni­ toring dedicated to ensuring conformity to appropriate social roles. There has been much discussion about the contemporary status of this system of surveillance and intervention, a system Foucault labels discipline. Some, most notably the philosopher Gilles Deleuze, have argued that we have entered a new, post-disciplinary phase (Deleuze 1 995 ) . Our concern, however, is with the question of how freedom is implicated in this historical study. In order to see this, we must rec­ ognize first that what Foucault describes in Discipline and Punish is the rise of a set of historical constraints on people's behaviour. These constraints work in a way that is often neglected by traditional politi­ cal philosophies. They do not operate by stopping people from doing something that they might otherwise be tempted to do. Instead, they create people to be certain kinds of ways, and by doing so make them into docile bodies. The concept of power will be discussed in more depth in other essays in this volume. For the moment let me say only that what Foucault offers with Discipline and Punish and others of his historical analyses is what might be called a positive rather than negative view of power. On this view, power works not by restraint but by creation. Power does not place a limit on our liberty; it makes us be certain kinds of people. It does so on two levels. First, it trains our bodies to be oriented toward particular kinds of behaviour. S econd, and perhaps more important, it makes us think of ourselves in certain kinds of ways. For example, the profusion of psychological monitoring and intervention that Foucault describes in Discipline and Punish creates a society in which people think of themselves as psychological beings. As a result, they consider 76

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their unhappiness as psychologically rooted and in need of psychologi­ cal cure. Rather than questioning the character of the society in which they live, they instead question themselves. It is they rather than the social arrangements that must change. This, in turn, reinforces those social arrangements by deflecting any criticism of them back onto those who are dissatisfied. All problems become psychological rather than social or political in origin. Power, in this case, works by what might be called constraint rather than restraint. But, like restraint, constraint works to limit one's options. By making someone into, say, a psychological being, it creates a conform­ ity and blunts the possibility of either social resistance or experimenta­ tion with other forms of living. Moreover, it does so more effectively than restraint would. When one is restrained, one still desires that which is forbidden. However, when one is constrained, one is moulded to desire only that which is considered appropriate to desire. One is not simply blocked from attaining what one wants; one does not even con­ sider alternatives to what are presented as the available social options. What does all this have to do with freedom? Recall the concept of metaphysical freedom. If we are metaphysically free, then we can control some of our thought and/or behaviour; we are not controlled by some force or another outside of us. What Foucault recounts in Discipline and Punish is a force outside of us that is influencing how we think, how we act, and in fact who we are - at least at this point in our history. The difference between the force he describes and the forces that concern metaphysical freedom is that his are historical rather than metaphysical. He does not describe a type of force (God, the environ­ ment, genes) that necessarily controls human thought and behaviour. He depicts a historically contingent set of practices that have come to have influence over our behaviour in this particular period. Because of this, there is no reason to believe that, if we understand our historical legacy, we cannot change it. That is why Foucault says, in the citation above, that "so many things can be changed" . He has the view, inherited from the Enlightenment, that so many people see him as rejecting: if we understand our situation then we have a chance at changing it. This perspective tacitly embraces the idea of metaphysical freedom, although it does not argue for it and it does not seek to establish its particular character or limits. One can see this idea when Foucault writes that, One must observe that there cannot be relations of power unless the subjects are free . If one or the other were completely at the disposition of the other and became his thing, an object on which 77

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he can exercise an infinite and unlimited violence, there would not be relations of power. In order to exercise a relation of power, there must be on both sides at least a certain form of liberty. ( 1 994: 12) As can readily be seen, Foucault's approach to freedom as some­ thing that concerns changing our present is politically inflected. This raises the question of what it has to do with political freedom. Politi­ cal freedom, recall, is a matter of what liberties we are afforded in a particular society or social arrangement. One might say, at a first go, that Foucault describes ways in which particular societies and social arrangements impinge upon liberty. This would not be entirely mis­ taken. Foucault does describe ways in which alternative ways of living are constrained by who we are made to be and how we are made to think about ourselves. However, there is something misleading about this way of putting things. It seems to presuppose a model of conceiving power and liberty that is not Foucault's model. In order to see this, we need to take a moment to describe that model. For traditional liberal political theory, there is a tension between state power and liberty that must be balanced. If the state has too much power, then it unfairly curtails an individual's right to create one's life as one sees fit. On the other hand, if liberty is unbounded, then people themselves could interfere with one another's right to pursue a life of their choosing. Therefore, the role of liberal political theory is to figure out the particular balance between state power and liberty, the balance that will best avoid these two extremes. (Liberal political theory has other tasks as well; here we are looking only at its role vis-a-vis political freedom.) On this view, state power is an external constraint placed upon individual liberty; the question is, how much and where should it be applied ? This is a view of power as negative, as restraint. As we have seen, however, Foucault's treatment of power in Discipline and Punish and elsewhere does not operate with a negative view of power. To be sure, he does not deny that negative power exists, and particularly at the level of the state. However, much of the way power operates, in his view, is not at the level of the state and its various repressive apparatuses, but closer to the ground. It inhabits our daily practices, moulding us into particular kinds of compliant beings. To the extent that Foucault's writings capture a real mode of power's operation, we must modify the traditional liberal view of liberty. It can no longer simply be an issue of how much restraint can be placed on which kinds of actions. It must also concern how we have come to be 78

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who we are, and what we can do about it. Therefore, political liberty is not just a matter of being left to do what one pleases. It is also, and more pointedly, a matter of understanding how we have been moulded in ways that certain things please us rather than others. And beyond that, it is a matter of understanding what else might be available to us. We might put all this somewhat schematically by saying that political freedom no longer simply concerns what we might be free from, but more significantly what, given current constraints, we might be free for. Foucault captures this idea in a citation that will also allow us to deepen our view of his conception of freedom: I would like to say something about the functions of any diagno­ sis concerning the nature of the present. It does not consist in a simple characterization of what we are but, instead by follow­ ing lines of fragility in the present - in managing to grasp why and how that-which-is might no longer be that-which-is. In this sense, any description must always be made in accordance with these kinds of virtual fracture which open up the space of freedom understood as a space of concrete freedom, i.e. a space of possible ( 1 990c: 3 6) transformation. Here we can see clearly the themes that we have isolated in Foucault's approach to freedom: constraint as a historical matter, the contingency of that constraint, and freedom as concrete rather than abstract. Moreo­ ver, in using the phrase "a space of possible transformation", Foucault captures the idea that freedom is not simply a matter of being left alone but also a matter of re-making ourselves into what we would like to be: freedom for, not just freedom from . Based on this citation, we might define Foucault's concept of freedom as that which we can make of ourselves from within the parameters of a particular historical situation. If we define freedom this way, we need to be careful to understand this definition of freedom the right way. First, we should not think that there is a pre-given set of things that we can make of ourselves in a given particular historical situation. It is not as though there is what we might call a "truth" of what we can become, and that once we understand our historical situation, we can discover that truth. Such a view would violate Foucault's project of historicizing those aspects of ourselves that we think of as permanent or unchangeable. It would reify our possibili­ ties in what is in reality a fluid historical situation. Second, and related, we should not assume that we can come fully to understand our historical situation. If who we are is the product of a complex interaction of practices, then at least aspects of the forces 79

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that shape us are likely to elude our comprehension. Discipline and Punish, for instance, is not an account of the whole of who we are. It is an account of only one aspect of who we are. The first volume of The History of' Sexuality is another, and the lecture series Foucault gave on governmentality (2007, 2008c) yet another. Moreover, who we are changes with the changes in our practices. So it is even more difficult to get a grasp on who we are at a particular moment. We always risk understanding who we just were, rather than who are now. The upshot of this is that, for Foucault, freedom is a matter of experimentation. To open up "a space of concrete freedom" is not to figure out who we might be and then go there ; it is to try out different possibilities for our lives, different "possible transformations", to see where they might lead. To live freely is to experiment with oneself, not always knowing whether one is getting free of the forces that have moulded one, nor (and we will return to this in a moment) being sure of the effects of one's experimentation. It is to try to create a life from within a space of uncertainty, having some knowledge of how one has been made to be. Our situation, then, is this. If we construct histories like Foucault's, histories which give us accounts of different aspects of the forces that have influenced us to be who we have become, then we have a partial knowledge of how we came to be that way. From there, we can decide which among those forces are acceptable to us, and which are, to use Foucault's term, intolerable. (Foucault's histories give accounts only of intolerable forces, since those are the ones we are most likely to want to change.) In seeking to overcome the intolerable forces, we must experiment with who we might become, not knowing entirely whether we are indeed escaping them. That is something we can only find out later, after our experiments are under way. We are, then, neither help­ less in the face of what moulds us nor certain of how and what we can do about it. We are somewhere in between. That is where our freedom lies, and indeed that is what our freedom is. Since we can only experiment without certainty as to the results of our experiments, we must always be vigilant. We do not know in advance where our experimentation will lead us. We might wind up either re-creating intolerable forces or creating new ones. Therefore, we cannot stop doing the kinds of histories Foucault engages in, nor resting content with his. The history of who we are is an ongoing project. Oth­ erwise put, the effects of our freedom are as uncertain as our freedom itself. We must never assume that the "space of possible transforma­ tions" we exploit will necessarily lead us to a better situation. Freedom is not the same thing as liberation. Whether our freedom is liberating or 80

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not is something that is not guaranteed to us. It can only be approached through experimentation and historically informed reflection. In order to get a better understanding of Foucault's conception of freedom, it might be useful to contrast it with that of a French philoso­ pher from the generation preceding Foucault's. Maurice Merleau-Ponty also has a notion of situated freedom, one in which we are free but not entirely free. Seeing the differences between the two conceptions of freedom may sharpen our grasp on Foucault's own approach. Merleau-Ponty constructs his concept of freedom in contrast to that of his contemporary Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre's view of freedom is that we are radically free in the metaphysical sense. There is nothing that is not in our power to decide. Sartre, at least in his early works, rejects all notions of a psychoanalytic unconscious or hidden historical forces that make us be who we are. In pure existentialist fashion, Sartre posits that our choices are solely our own. We must take full responsibility for them. Merleau-Ponty does not embrace this radical view of freedom. For Merleau-Ponty, one of the forces that we cannot control but that makes us who we are is the body. Corporeality - which it is the core project of Merleau-Ponty to understand - gives us our first interactions with the world through perception, and our first understanding of the world. The living body, rather than being an inert substance through which sensations pass, is instead the source of our primal engagement with the world. We might be able to alter that engagement in certain ways, but our embodiment ensures that there will be aspects of our living over which we do not have complete control. There is a certain unconscious aspect to our lives that will always elude us, the aspect that runs through our corporeal interaction with the world. Further, as Merleau-Ponty points out, that interaction is not properly described in terms of a body on the one hand that interacts with a world on the other. It is more intimate than that. The interaction is instead better characterized as that of a body/world complex. This position leads to a view of freedom far less radical than Sartre's. For Sartre, the body is simply an inert object manipulated by conscious­ ness. If consciousness is unconstrained, then freedom of consciousness would be absolute. Sartre, of course, recognizes that consciousness is in some way embodied, so that even if one freely decides, say, to fly, that does not mean that one will actually be able to fly. But the decision itself is radically free. Merleau-Ponty 's analysis of corporeality erases Sartre's radical distinction between mind and body. As Merleau-Ponty shows, the body already engages in perceptual interpretation before one consciously reflects on it. (He uses examples of visual illusions to make his point. Illusions are already seen as something before conscious 81

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reflection attempts to correct them.) If this is true, then there is no radical freedom. Embodied creatures are constrained by their body/ world engagement. This does not mean that one cannot reflect on that engagement. But one always does so as an already embodied being. The freedom of that reflection and of one's behaviour is, for Merleau­ Ponty as for Foucault, a form of situated freedom. We choose our world and the world chooses us . . . freedom is always a meeting of the inner and the outer . . . and it shrinks without ever disappearing altogether in direct proportion to the lessening of the tolerance allowed by the bodily and institutional data of our lives. (Merleau-Ponty 1 9 62 : 454) Our freedom is had within and through the constraints set by our bodies and our world. Those constraints can allow greater or lesser room for action : greater or lesser tolerance. But without bodies and historically given institutional frameworks, there would be no freedom, because there would be nothing through which (i.e. the body) to enact it and nothing about which (the world) it would concern. There are ways in which Merleau-Ponty 's conception of situated freedom is similar to Foucault's. Both of them acknowledge the impor­ tance of our embodiment, and they recognize the body's exposure to the world and its practices. Moreover, in both approaches that expo­ sure opens out on to limitations on one's freedom. What distinguishes them is the level of analysis on which these recognitions rest. Merleau­ Ponty's situated freedom is a metaphysical freedom. He offers a general philosophical account of the human body in its intertwining with the world. That account shows how mind and body as well as body and world form a single whole. From that he derives the conclusion that, contra Sartre, all human freedom must be situated. There can be no radical freedom because there is no aspect of our being that can stand outside our encrustation into the world. All freedom is the freedom of an embodied consciousness embedded in the world and its history. Foucault does not need to deny any of this. Neither, however, does he need to embrace it. His approach is constructed along a different register. His question is not the metaphysical one of what the nature of human freedom is. Rather, his question is the more political one of what freedom we might have under particular historical conditions, namely our historical conditions. The situated freedom he is interested in is not the freedom of one situated as a human body in the world ; it is the freedom of our situation. In the citation above, Foucault empha­ sizes that a diagnosis of the nature of the present must characterize that 82

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present in such a way as to show its fragility, its fractures. The fragility of the present is not due to humans' possession of metaphysical freedom, although, as we have seen, he does seem to assume some form of meta­ physical freedom. It is due, rather, to the contingent structure of history. History does not unfold according to a pre-given or transcendental framework. It is largely the product of dispersed practices that intersect with and influence one another in ways that cannot be predicted in advance and that conform to no transcendent pattern. (This does not mean that one cannot find patterns within history; it means that one can only see them after they have created themselves through the interac­ tion of contingent practices.) Situated freedom arises as a result of this contingency of history. The issue for one interested in one's freedom, then, is not the metaphysical question of who one is and where one's freedom lies, but rather the question of where one's particular history has deposited one, and how that history might be intervened upon. For Foucault, in short, situated freedom is a historical and political concept rather than a metaphysical one. Foucault's approach to freedom, then, like the approach of many aspects of his work, is at once philosophical and historical. As a p hilo­ sophically oriented concept, it takes history in a more sophisticated direction than most historians are capable of. As a historically inflected concept, it raises questions to traditional philosophical analyses. Foucault's writings ask to be read along both of these axes, each one in conversation with the other. If we allow ourselves to engage in this two-level conversation, we may become more aware not only of the particular philosophically inflected way in which we often view the world, but also of the historically contingent and malleable character of that way. In other words, we may come face to face with our freedom.

83

SIX

a Johanna Oksala

The critical impact of Michel Foucault's philosophy is not based on the explicit theories or j udgements he makes, but rather on the approach that he adopts to analysing our present. While science and much of philosophy aim to decipher from among the confusion of events and experiences that which is necessary and can be articulated as universal law, Foucault's thought moves in exactly the opposite direction. He attempts to find among the apparent necessities that which upon closer philosophical scrutiny turns out to be contingent, historical and cultur­ ally variable. Everything, especially those things that we are convinced do not have a history, is scrutinized. This method is also utilized regarding Foucault's conception of the body. He does not present a theory of the body anywhere, or even a unified account of it, and his conception of it has to be discerned from his genealogical books and articles. Yet his philosophical approach to it is distinctive. The body is central for understanding the influence of history and the mechanisms of modern power. Its intertwinement with practices of power means that it has a central role in practices of resist­ ance too : it is capable of displaying a dimension of freedom. According to Foucault, we believe that the body obeys only the nec­ essary and universal laws of physiology, and that history and culture have no influence on it. In reality, bodies are shaped by society: they are used and experienced in many different ways and their characteristics vary according to cultural practices. They are moulded by rhythms of work, eating habits and changing norms of beauty. They are concretely shaped by diet, exercise and medical interventions. In short, they too have a history. 85

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In his most widely read books, Discipline and Punish ( 1 975) and The History of Sexuality, Volume I ( 1 976), Foucault aims to bring the body into the focus of history by studying its connections with techniques and deployments of power. His understanding of the body is further elaborated in numerous interviews and articles. I will focus here on the central texts in which he discusses it in order to present a coherent and cohesive account of Foucault's understanding of the body, paying particular attention to its relationship to both power and freedom. In order to illustrate the body's relationship to power, I will discuss his analyses of the prison, as articulated in Discipline and Punish, and of sexuality, as articulated in Volume I of The History ofSexuality. In order to illustrate how the body is implicated in resistance and the practices of freedom, I again draw upon The History of Sexuality, as well as Foucault's analysis of the life of the hermaphrodite, Herculine Barbin . I conclude the chapter by discussing the ways in which Foucault's work has influenced emancipatory efforts by queer and feminist theorists. It should be kept in mind that Foucault never intended his views on the body to form a unified theory. His genealogies are best understood as a toolbox, a flexible and varied methodological approach that draws from a multiplicity of sources and is applicable to a variety of questions. However, one of the key ideas that unites them is that genealogies are always crucially "histories of the body " : they typically question all purely biological explanations of such complex areas of human behav­ iour as sexuality, insanity or criminality.

Doc i l e bod ies

In an early and definitive article on his genealogical method, Nietzsche, Genealogy, History, Foucault follows Nietzsche in insisting that the task of genealogy is to focus on the body. Nietzsche had attacked phi­ losophy for its denial of the materiality and vitality of the body, for its pretentious metaphysics that deals only with abstractions such as values, reason and the soul. Genealogy must be "a curative science", charting the long and winding history of metaphysical concepts in the material­ ity of bodies (Foucault 1 9 84b: 9 0 ) . Rather than contemplating what is understood as high and noble, genealogy will focus on the things nearest to it: the body, the nervous system, nutrition, digestion and energies (ibid. : 8 9 ) . Foucault writes polemically that the philosopher needs the genealogy of the body to "exorcise the shadow of his soul" (ibid. : 8 0) . I n this text Foucault also presents his most extreme formulations of the body as completely shaped by history and culture. He seems to 86

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deny that there is anything universal and ahistorical about it that could be understood as its stable and fixed core : "nothing in man - not even his body is sufficiently stable to serve as the basis for self-recognition or for understanding other men" (ibid. : 8 7) . Foucault's aim i n this discussion o f Nietzsche's conception o f the body as a historical construct is not to develop some kind of extreme social constructivist theory of the body, however. He does not con­ sider the body here as an object of a theory, but rather as essential to his genealogy in two different ways. The first is political or ethical : Foucault wants to use genealogy to study the history of the very things we believe do not have a history. As Gary Gutting writes, "whereas much traditional history tries to show that where we are is inevitable, given the causes revealed by its account, Foucault's histories aim to show the contingency - and hence surpassability - of what history has given us" ( 1 994: 1 0) . Foucault's point is thus not to argue for an extreme view of the body as a cultural construction, but to place under suspicion and subject to further scrutiny all claims of its immutable being: essences, foundations and constants. The second way in which the body is essential to Foucault's geneal­ ogy is methodological : he wants to bring the body into the focus of history and study history through it. Foucault's genealogy is methodo­ logically distinct in that it criticizes the idea of power operating by the ideological manipulation of minds : the idea that those in power are trying to brainwash people into believing things that are not true. Foucault's aim is to show the inadequacy of such a conception of power by revealing the material manipulation of bodies. Foucault's illustration of how power operates through the manipu­ lation of bodies is done in a powerful manner in his first major work of the genealogical period, Discipline and Punish. The book charts the genealogy of the modern prison institution and brings under scrutiny the connection between power and the body by analysing the ways in which the bodies of prisoners are consciously manipulated. It also demonstrates effectively Foucault's idea of the essential intertwinement of body and power : bodies are not given, natural objects, but assume their shape and characteristics in cultural practices of power, including punitive practices. Discipline is a historically specific technology of power that emerged in the eighteenth century and operates through the body. It consists of various techniques, which aim at making the body both docile and useful. Bodies of prisoners, soldiers, workers and schoolchildren were subjected to new kinds of discipline in order to make them more use­ ful for mass production and at the same time easier to control. The 87

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functions, movements and capabilities of these bodies were broken down into narrow segments, analysed in detail and recomposed in a maximally effective way. The human body became a machine the functioning of which could be optimized, calculated and improved. Foucault argues that in the seventeenth century a soldier, for example, still learnt his profession for the most part in actual fighting in which he proved his natural strength and inherent courage. But by the eighteenth century a soldier had become a fighting machine, something that could be constructed through correct training. Foucault tells us: The human body was entering a machinery of power that explores it, breaks it down and rearranges it . . . It defined how one may have a hold over others' bodies, not only so that they may do what one wishes, but so that they may operate as one wishes, with techniques, the speed and the efficiency that one determines. Thus discipline produces subjected and practiced bodies, "docile" ( 1 979 : 1 3 8 ) bodies. Hence, a novel aspect o f modern disciplinary power i s that i t i s not external to the bodies that it subjects. Although the body has also in the past been intimately tied to power and social order, Foucault claims that disciplinary power is essentially a modern phenomenon. It differs from earlier forms of bodily manipulation, which were violent and often performative : public tortures, slavery and hanging, for instance. Disciplinary power does not subject the body to extreme violence, it is not external or spectacular. It does not mutilate or coerce its target, but through detailed training reconstructs the body to produce new kinds of gestures, habits and skills. It focuses on details, on single movements, on their timing and rapidity. It organizes bodies in space and schedules their every action for maximum effect. This is done in factories, schools, hospitals and prisons through fixed and minutely detailed rules, con­ stant surveillance and frequent examinations and check-ups. Bodies are classified according to their best possible performance, their size, age and sex. Unlike older forms of bodily coercion, disciplinary power does not destroy the body, but reconstructs it. Individuals literally incorpo­ rate the objectives of power, which become part of their own being: actions, aims and habits. In prisons, for example, disciplinary technologies subject prisoners by manipulating and materially inscribing their bodies. Their bodies are separated from others in practices of classification and examination, but also concretely and spatially. They are manipulated through exer­ cise regimes, diet and strict time schedules. These processes of power 88

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operate through the bodies of prisoners, but they are also essentially objectifying: through processes of classification and examination the individual is given a social and a personal identity. He or she becomes a delinquent, a person with a distinct identity. Disciplinary power thus constitutes delinquents through concrete bodily manipulation and dis­ cursive objectification. These two dimensions strengthen each other. On the one hand, concrete bodily manipulation made discursive objec­ tification possible, resulting in the birth of sciences such as criminology and criminal psychiatry. The development of these sciences, on the other hand, helped the development and rationalization of disciplinary technologies in prisons. The two dimensions furthermore link together effectively through normalization. Scientific discourses produce truths that function as the norm: they tell us what is the normal fat percentage, cholesterol count or number of sexual partners for a certain sex and age group, for example. Modern power operates through the internaliza­ tion of these norms. We modify our behaviour in an endless attempt to approximate the normal, and in this process become certain kinds of subjects. This process of normalization is illustrated in Discipline and Punish in which Foucault analyses the strategies used by disciplinary power for the subjection of criminals. Where prisoners are concerned, disci­ plinary power does not aim at repressing their interests or desires, but rather at reconstructing these desires as normal. This is not done by the ideological manipulation of their minds, but on and through their bodies. The aim of disciplinary techniques is to inscribe the norms of the society in the bodies of criminals by subjecting them to recon­ structed patterns of behaviour. The prisoners must subject themselves to power to the extent that its aims become their own inner meaning of normal. Foucault formulates this complete subjection poetically by turning around the old philosophical and religious idea that the body is the prison of the soul: The man described for us, whom we are invited to free, is already in himself the effect of a subjection much more profound than himself. ''A soul" inhabits him and brings him to existence, which is itself a factor in the mastery that power exercises over the body. The soul is the effect and instrument of a political anatomy; the (Ibid. : 3 0. ) soul is the prison of the body. The "soul" o f the prisoner - that which i s supposed t o be the most authentic part of him and, therefore, a key to his emancipation - is in fact an effect of the subjection of his body. 89

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Sex u a l bod ies

Foucault's next major work, The History of Sexuality, Volume I, the­ matizes the body through the question of sexuality. It puts forward his famous account of the discursive constitution of sexuality. Although the book is a historical study of the emergence of modern sexuality in the nineteenth century, Foucault's criticism targets contemporary conceptions of sexuality as well. The prevalent views in the West on sexuality in the 1 9 60s and 1 970s held that there was a natural and healthy sexuality that all human beings shared simply by virtue of being human, and this sexuality was presently repressed by cultural prohibitions and conventions such as bourgeois morality and capital­ ist socioeconomic structures. Because it was essential to have an active and free sexuality, repressed sexuality was the cause of various neu­ roses. The popular discourse on sexuality thus fervently argued for sexual liberation: we had to liberate our true sexuality from the repres­ sive mechanisms of power. Foucault challenges this view by showing how our conceptions and experiences of sexuality are in fact always the result of specific cultural conventions and mechanisms of power and could not exist independ­ ently of them. Sexuality, like delinquency, only exists in a society. The mission to liberate our repressed sexuality is thus fundamentally mis­ guided because there is no authentic or natural sexuality to liberate. To free oneself from one set of norms only meant adopting different norms in their stead, and that could turn out to be just as normalizing. Foucault wrote mockingly that the irony in the deployment of sexuality is "in having us believe that our 'liberation' is in the balance" ( 1 990a: 1 5 9 ) . In order t o challenge the accepted relationship between sexuality and repressive power Foucault had to reconceive the nature of power. His major claim is that power is not essentially repressive; in fact, it is productive. It does not operate by repressing and prohibiting the true and authentic expressions of a natural sexuality. Instead it produces, through cultural normative practices and scientific discourses, the ways in which we experience and conceive of our sexuality. The sexual body is an essential component of this process. In a much­ quoted passage Foucault writes: We must not make the mistake of thinking that sex is an auton­ omous agency which secondarily produces manifold effects of sexuality over the entire length of its surface of contact with power. On the contrary, sex is the most speculative, most ideal, and most internal element in a deployment of sexuality organized 90

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by power in its grip on bodies and their materiality, their forces, energies, sensations, and pleasures. (Ibid. : 1 5 5 ) Foucault thus claims that sex i s a n essential element i n the strategy through which power holds a grip on our bodies. But what exactly does Foucault mean by sex in this passage ? The French word sexe is ambiguous because it can refer to the categories of male and female in the sense of sex organs anatomy and biology that differentiates males from females - or it can refer to a natural function, a biological founda­ tion or principle in the body that belongs in common to both men and women, or to the activity of having sex. This ambiguity is essential for Foucault's argument, however, because he attempts to show that rather than being a natural entity, "sex" in fact refers to a completely arbitrary and illusory unity of disparate elements. Foucault begins his discussion of sex in the end of The History of' Sexuality by anticipating an objection. He invents an imaginary oppo­ nent who claims that his history of sexuality only manages to argue for the cultural construction of sexuality because he evades "the bio­ logically established existence of sexual functions for the benefit of phenomena that are variable, perhaps, but secondary, and ultimately superficial" (ibid. : 15 0-5 1 ) . The imaginary critic thus raises a question about a natural and necessary foundation of sexuality in the body: even if the manifestations of sexuality are culturally constructed and vari­ able, there must nevertheless be a biological foundation in the body, a pre-cultural, embodied givenness which cannot be bent at will. There must be something purely natural - biological organs, functions and instincts - that causes the culturally varied manifestations of sexuality. Foucault responds to his opponent by, first, denying that his analysis of sexuality implies "the elision of the body, anatomy, the biological, the functional" (ibid. : 1 5 1 ) . On the contrary, what is needed is an analysis, which would overcome the biology/culture distinction (ibid. : 1 5 2 ) . The aim of h i s genealogical histories i s precisely t o show h o w history and bodies are bound together in complex ways in the development of modern forms of power such as disciplinary power. He explicitly argues that his analysis of sexuality as a discursive construct does not deny the materiality of the body and the biologically established exist­ ence of sexual functions (ibid. : 1 5 0-5 1 ) . The purpose of his study is, in fact, to show: how deployments of power are directly connected to the body - to bodies, functions, physiological processes, sensations, and pleas­ ures; . . . what is needed is to make it visible through an analysis 91

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in which the biological and the historical are not consecutive to one another . . . but are bound together in an increasingly com­ plex fashion in accordance with the development of the modern technologies of power that take life as their objective. Hence, I do not envisage a "history of mentalities" that would take account of bodies only through the manner in which they have been per­ ceived and given meaning and value; but a "history of the bodies" and the manner in which what is most material and most vital in them has been invested. (Ibid. : 1 5 1-2) Foucault thus accepts that ontologically there is some kind of mate­ riality: there are such things in the world as bodies, organs, somatic locations, functions, anatomo-physiological systems, sensations and pleasures. What he does deny, however, is that this materiality corre­ sponds to the idea of sex in an unproblematic way. In other words, there is no natural or necessary referent for the notion of sex. In scientific discourses on sexuality the notion of sex came to refer to something that in reality did not exist as a natural unity at all. It was a pseudo-scientific object like hysteria or monomania, which we now think refer to purely fictitious unities of disparate symptoms. The term sex is then placed inside inverted commas in Foucault's text because it becomes suspect. He brackets the accepted meaning of the notion in order to be able to study its genealogy: how the idea of "sex" took form in the different strategies of power, and what role it played in them. Foucault notes three theoretical benefits that the idea of sex pro­ duced: it made it possible to group together different kinds of elements - anatomical features, behavioural patterns and fantasies, for example and make use of this fictitious unity as a causal principle of explanation for different forms of sexuality. Second, the idea of sex gave the sciences of sexuality a proximity to biological sciences of reproduction, which functioned as a guarantee of their quasi-scientificity. Third, because sex was something biological and natural, power could only appear as something external to it. Foucault, in contrast, refutes the idea that sex is a given, biological foundation and as such the "other" with respect to power. For him, the idea of a natural and foundational sex is a normative, historical construct that functions as an important anchorage point for power. Foucault's aim in analysing the sexual body is to study how the scien­ tific idea of "sex" took form in the different strategies of power, and what role it played in them. The idea that "sex" is the scientific foun­ dation, the true, causal origin of one's gender identity, sexual identity and sexual desire makes it possible to effectively normalize sexual and 92

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gendered behaviour. Through scientific knowledge about one's true sex it is possible to evaluate, pathologize and correct one's sexual and gendered behaviour by viewing it as either "normal" or "abnormal".

Bod ies, p l ea s u res a n d freed o m

Foucault's analysis of power attempts t o describe the historical limits that are imposed on us, but it is also an experiment with the possibility of modifying and crossing them: relations of power always incorpo­ rate relations of resistance and points of recalcitrance. We cannot step outside the networks of power that circumscribe our experience, but there is always a possibility for thinking and being otherwise within them. To be free does not mean that everything is possible, but neither is the present way of thinking and being a necessity. Freedom refers to the contingency of structures and limits - including the limits of our present field of experience. This is also true about sexual experiences. Foucault does not view the sexual body only as a docile and passive object of dominant discourses and techniques of power. It also represents the possibility of resistance against such discourses and techniques. In an important passage of The History of Sexuality, Foucault writes : We must not think that b y saying yes t o sex, one says n o t o power; on the contrary, one tracks along the course laid out by the general deployment of sexuality. It is the agency of sex that we must break away from, if we aim - through a tactical reversal of the various mechanisms of sexuality - to counter the grip of power with the claims of bodies, pleasures and knowledges, in their multiplic­ ity and their possibility of resistance. The rallying point for the counterattack against the deployment of sexuality ought not to ( 1 990a: 1 5 7) be sex-desire, but bodies and pleasures. What Foucault suggests in this paragraph is that it is in the body that the seeds for subverting the normalizing aims of power are sown. The body is a locus of resistance and freedom (see also Foucault 1 9 8 0a: 5 6) . The body i s never completely docile and its experiences can never be wholly reduced to normative, discursive determinants. The sexual body is always discursive in the sense that it is an object of scientific discourses and disciplinary technologies. Nevertheless, it is also a body acting in the world and experiencing pleasure. And a distinction must be drawn between discourse and experience, even if we accept that language 93

MICHEL FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

forms the necessary limits of our experience and thought. Even if we believe that it is only possible to experience something that we have words for and that language makes intelligible for us, the experience itself is still not reducible to language. The ontological distinction between experience and discourse - the experience of something and the linguistic description or explanation of this experience is crucial for understanding the resistance of the body. The body represents a dimension of freedom in the sense that its expe­ riences are never wholly reducible to the discursive order: embodied experiences and language are imperfectly aligned because experience sometimes exceeds language and sometimes it is completely inarticulate. Bodies are capable of multiplying, distorting and overflowing their dis­ cursive determinants and of opening up new and surprising possibilities that can be articulated in new ways. While The History of Sexuality, Volume I already suggests the possibility of understanding bodies and pleasures as a locus of resist­ ance, the book that followed it in 1 977, Herculine Barbin: Being the

Recently Discovered Memoirs o{ a Nineteenth-Century French Her­ maphrodite, is equally important for understanding Foucault's view of the resistance of the body. Herculine Barbin was a hermaphrodite who lived at the end of the nineteenth century, at the time when scientific theories about sex and sexuality were gaining prominence. She was designated as female at birth, but grew up with an ambiguous aware­ ness of her bodily uniqueness. As an adult she decided to confess her anatomical particularity to a priest and as a consequence was scientifi­ cally reclassified as a man by doctors. She/he was incapable of adapting her/himself to the new identity, however, and committed suicide at the age of thirty. She/he left behind memoirs recounting his/her tragic story, which Foucault discovered in the archives of the Department of Public Hygiene. He edited them and they were published together with the medical and legal documents related to the case as well as an introduction written by him. The way the book is compiled is significant. It effectively juxtaposes Herculine's memoirs and thus the first-person, lived account of the hermaphrodite body with the third-person, legal and medical accounts of it. It is clear that Herculine's own account cannot be understood as the authentic or authoritative description of her embodiment as it is clearly shaped by the narrative conventions as well as the cultural conceptions of hermaphrodites of her time. But neither can the third­ person legal accounts and medical diagnosis be accepted as the "true" account. The tragedy of Herculine's experience is exactly the result of the fissures and disjunctures - as well as the necessary correspondence 94

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and overlapping - between the subject's experience of his or her body and the dominant scientific and legal discourses on its true sex. The form of the book, not just its content, is thus highly significant for Foucault's attempts to show that while our embodiment is never independent of dominant discourses and practices of power, it is not reducible to them either. Bodies always assume meaning through a complex process in which competing discourses, conceptualizations and practices intertwine with private sensations, pleasures and pains.

H ow to use Fo u ca u l d i a n bod ies?

As noted earlier, Foucault conceived of his books as toolboxes that readers could rummage through to find a tool they needed to think and act with. It is therefore pertinent to conclude by asking how his conception of the body has been and can be appropriated by contem­ porary thinkers attempting to understand and change current ways of living our sexuality. Foucault's understanding of the historical constitution of the body through the mechanisms of power has influenced feminist theory pro­ foundly: it has provided a way to theorize the body in its materiality while avoiding all naturalist formulations. 1 It has also given tools for understanding the disciplinary production of the female body. Feminists have appropriated Foucault's ideas about power and the body to study the different ways that women shape their bodies - from cosmetic surgery to dieting and eating disorders -- and analysed these everyday practices as disciplinary technologies in the service of patriarchal, nor­ malizing power. These normative feminine practices train the female body in docility and obedience to cultural demands, while at the same time they are paradoxically experienced in terms of "power" and "con­ trol'' by the women themselves (see e.g. Bartky 1 9 8 8 ; Bordo 1 9 8 9 ) . Foucault's historicization o f sex has also profoundly influenced femi­ nist theory. Judith Butler ( 1 990) has effectively appropriated Foucault's thinking on the relationship between subject, power and sex for the question of gendered subjects. She has followed Foucault in arguing that there is no true sex behind gender identity that would be its objec­ tive cause and biological foundation. Instead, gender identity is con­ structed as a normative and regulatory ideal in the networks of power and knowledge. Individuals perform gender by repeating behaviour that approximates this ideal. While their behaviour is understood to be the inevitable and natural consequence of their sex, Butler argues that it is actually a performance without any natural and foundational 95

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cause. Feminine behaviour, for example, is not the result of a true and foundational female sex, but the reverse is true : the idea of a true and foundational female sex is the result of feminine behaviour. The idea of a stable gender core is a fiction that is upheld by a constantly ongo­ ing performance. Not only did Foucault influence feminist thinkers, his views on the sexual body have also influenced gay and lesbian studies. His con­ ception of sexuality has, to a large extent, founded a new theoretical approach to sexuality called queer theory. The main idea behind the queer conception of sexuality is that the identities of gay and lesbian as well as of heterosexual are not natural, essential identities, but are culturally constructed through normative discourses and power relations regulating the "healthy " and "normal" expressions of sexuality. This does not mean that homosexuality does not "really" exist. As in the case of woman, just because something is constructed does not mean that it is not real. People are defined and they must think and live according to such constructions. The aim of sexual politics, however, cannot be simply to find one's true identity through a scientific study of the various aspects of the sexual body. S exual bodies as well as the sexual identities they are supposed to cause and found are constructed through the oppressive power relations that our politics must attempt to challenge and to resist. 2 The goal of queer and feminist politics therefore has to be more complicated than simple liberation from power and the affirmation of one's homosexuality or gender identity: practising freedom entails questioning and even denying the identities that are imposed on us as natural and essential by making visible their cultural construction and dependence on the power relations that are operative in society. Rather than thinking in terms of stable binary categories such as man and woman, heterosexual and homosexual, we should study their constitu­ tion and the ways in which sexuality emerges as a complex construction only in relation to them. While a shared focus on bodies has opened up important connec­ tions between feminist theory, queer theory and Foucault's thought, it has been argued that Foucault understands the body as too docile and culturally malleable, and that his conception of it is thus one-sided and limited for feminist purposes (see e.g. Bordo 1 98 9 , 1 993 ; Bigwood 1 99 1 ; McNay 1 99 1 ; Soper 1 99 3 ) . The opposite charge has also been made. Judith Butler, for example, criticizes Foucault's understanding of the body in The History of Sexuality for a return to "a non-normalizable wildness" ( 1 99 7 : 92). She claims that while Foucault advocates the critical historicization of sexuality and sex in The History of Sexuality, 96

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he does not extend it to the sexed body, but naively presents bodies and pleasures as the site of resistance against power. I have attempted to show, however, that Foucault's conception of the body provides fruitful tools for theorizing the body both as an effect of power and as a locus of resistance and freedom. Bodies are both docile and anarchic. They are not reducible to a collection of biological facts, but provide possibilities for experimentation and a variety of pleasures. They are always inevitably intertwined with mechanisms of power, but they also open up the realm of creative politics and personal experi­ mentation. They open up a realm of freedom in the sense that they break and disturb every totality, but this ream of freedom must not be understood as some absolute and mystical outside to power. Foucault emphasizes that the "virtual fractures" for thinking and being otherwise "which open up a space of freedom" must be understood in terms of concrete practices capable of transforming our present ( 1 990c: 3 6) . We must try to rearticulate the possibilities opened up by the indeterminacy and ontological contingency of our bodies in ways that are conducive to concrete political transformation of our present. Foucault's message to us is that sexuality should be understood as a practice or a way of being that provides possibilities for being otherwise, rather than as a psychological or biological condition that we must reveal the truth about. It should be transferred from the realm of biological necessity to the realm of practices of freedom.

N otes 1. For feminist appropriations of Foucault, see, for example, Butler ( 1 990), Braid­ otti ( 1 9 9 1 ) , Sawicki ( 1 9 9 1 ) , McNay ( 1 992), McWhorter ( 1 999), Oksala (2005). 2. On Foucault and queer theory, see, for example, Halperin ( 1 99 5 ) .

97

S E VE N

Freedom and s pirituality Karen Vin tges

Spirituality is an idiosyncratic concept in the work of Foucault, which might best be characterized as an "intensity without a 'spirit"' .1 To understand Foucault's specific concept of spirituality, we have to take into account some basic themes of his oeuvre, especially of his later work, that is, his books, interviews and lectures since 1 976. In this chapter I will first analyse the way in which Foucault uses the concept of spirituality in his early work, a utilization that is inspired by surrealist writers. For this analysis I rely heavily on the work of Jeremy Carrette, who in his book Foucault and Religion (2000) devotes a chapter to this topic. In the second section of the chapter I briefly discuss Foucault's analysis, as found in his "middle" ( 1 9 70-76) works, of dominant forms of subjectivity in the modern West. This discussion lays the ground for the chapter's third section, which analyses the "exit" status of the concept of spirituality in Foucault's final works. Here I show that spir­ ituality constitutes an ethical self-transformation as conscious practice of freedom. In a fourth section, I discuss Foucault's epistemological claims regarding the relation between spirituality and truth. In the next two sections I analyse his concept of "political spirituality" and argue that this concept offers us a new normative perspective for cross­ cultural politics. In a concluding section I illustrate Foucault's idea of spirituality as freedom practice by going into the emerging discourse of Islamic feminism.

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Beyon d the body/so u l d u a l i s m

A s Carrette shows, Foucault i n his early (pre-1 970) work only once talks about spirituality. In a debate on the "new novel" and surreal­ ism, Foucault comments on certain surrealist experiments which he witnessed in which people tried to let the body speak. " (R)eference is constantly made", Foucault states, to a certain number of experiences - experiences, if you like, that I will call, in quotation marks, "spiritual experiences" (although "spiritual" is not quite the right word) - such as dreams, madness, folly, repetition, the double, the disruption of time, the return, etc. These experiences form a constellation that is doubtless quite coherent. I was also struck by the fact this constellation was already mapped out in surrealism. (Foucault 1 999b: 72) Foucault shared with the surrealists an interest in "a new space of thought created by a radical critique of rationality and certainty ", with­ out, however, taking on board the wider surrealist fascination with religious ideas (Carrette 2000: 5 6) . Through the work of semi-surrealist authors such as Artaud and Klossowski, Foucault tries to think beyond the body/soul dualism of Western, Christian and Cartesian traditions, and to conceive of what Carrette calls a "spiritual corporality" , and a "reordering of spiritual concepts into the body " (ibid. : 54) . Whereas surrealism incorporated occult and gnostic influences in its fascination for transgression and its attempt to overcome "all control exercised by reason" (ibid. : 5 0) , Foucault's interest in "spirituality" concerns modes of experience that are rooted in the body and that transgress rational or conscious thought. As we will see, Foucault will retain this element of "spiritual corporality" in his later works but will also add something else to it, since he then is no longer satisfied with the idea of resistance against the rationalist or logo-centric order as primarily a bodily expression (Thompson 2003 ) .

C ritique o f normal ity

In his middle work, Foucault at length discusses and criticizes dominant forms of subjectivity in modern Western society. His works of the 1 970s unmask the claim of Western Enlightenment that it brought progress for humanity and society through reason. "'The Enlightenment,' which discovered the liberties, also invented the disciplines" (Foucault 1 979 : 100

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222) . Originating in the nineteenth century, these disciplines - pan­ optic, controlling, discursive institutions such as prisons, schools and medical and welfare institutions applied power techniques, such as surveillance, training and examination, to individual bodies in order to generate rational self-control. The idea that reason makes self-control possible leads to the application of disciplinary techniques not only by institutions, but also by individuals themselves, as a means of gaining such control. In this way, an internal "core self " is established and the autonomous subject is born. The human sciences play a major role in the disciplines, classifying and categorizing people, surveilling their behaviour, and treating them where their behaviour is deemed abnormal. Sciences like psychiatry, biology, medicine and economics and, later, psychoanalysis, psychol­ ogy, sociology, ethnology, pedagogy, criminology, in all their practi­ cal dimensions - such as buildings, therapy rooms, intake procedures, exams - codify what is rational and what is not, what is normal and what is not, and what is human and inhuman. Through this regime of political rationality, the subject form of the rational autonomous indi­ vidual has since the Enlightenment become the norm in Western culture. However, to Foucault, the political rationality that characterizes Western societies creates not only a prison for so-called abnormal peo­ ple (criminals, sexual perverts, madmen, etc.) but for the "normal" ones too, and his compassion clearly lies with both (White 1 9 9 6 ) .2 Whereas in Discipline and Punish Foucault analyses at length the surveilling power techniques that are applied to the body and that generate rational self-control, in the first volume of The History of Sexuality ( 1 99 0a) he discusses an inner subjectification at an even deeper level. Discourses such as psychology, psychiatry, pedagogy and medicine force people, on behalf of an inner Truth that has to be revealed, to talk about their supposedly hidden sexual feelings, thus allocating a sexual identity to each of them. To know oneself has become an endless task of turning inward at yet deeper levels. The psy-sciences in general and Freudian psychoanalysis in particular are Foucault's betes noires in his middle work. Through them the modern Western subject has become a suppos­ edly authentic, deep self which is compelled time and again to confess its inner feelings. The deep self to Foucault is a prison house a fortiori. �-

S p i ritu a l p racti ces

Foucault's historicizing of the Western subject leads him to ancient Greek and Hellenist forms of subjectivity in his final works. In his 101

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1 9 8 1-82 College de France course, The Hermeneutics of the Subject (2005 a), he clearly points out that the ancient saying "you have to know yourself " (gnothi seauton) was grounded in something other than the search for one's inner truth. It was interwoven with the "care of the self " (epimeleia heautou), a tradition which we seem to have forgotten since modernity. The label "care of the self " is, from 1 976 onwards, used by Foucault to articulate ancient practices which aim for self-improvement in rela­ tion to an ethical way of life. Ethics in antiquity was a strong structure in itself, relatively autonomous in regard to other structures. It con­ sisted of vocabularies that were intended as guides for the concrete shaping of oneself as ethical subject. The striving for self-knowledge concerned one's position and one's behaviour, so as to be able to trans­ form oneself "in order to attain a certain state of happiness, purity, wisdom, perfection, or immortality " (Foucault 1 997d: 225 ) . Here we have a subject that is not the deep self of the disciplines but rather a more superficial self, which strives for the ethical coherence of its acting. Through constant practising or "ascesis", by way of "technolo­ gies of the self " such as writing exercises, meditation and dialogue with oneself, one tries to create an "ethos" . This personal ethics (the word ethos meaning literally "character " in Greek, referring to one's personality) is not only a matter of thought; instead, it is "a mode of being for the subject, along with a certain way of acting, a way visible to others" ( 1 9 9 7e : 2 8 6) . It is in this context that Foucault again uses the concept of spirituality. The work of Pierre Hadot, classicist and colleague of Foucault at the College de France, is of importance here. Hadot, in his approach to classical philosophy, emphasizes the fact that philosophy in antiquity for a large part consisted in "spiritual exercises". To indicate that ancient philosophy was a way of life that engaged the whole of existence, Hadot considers the term "spiritual" the most appropriate : It is . . . necessary to use this term, I believe, because none of the other adjectives we could use - "psychic," "moral," "ethical," "intellectual," "of thought," "of the soul" - covers all the aspects of the reality we want to describe . . . the word "thought" does not indicate clearly enough that imagination and sensibility play ( 1 995 : 8 1-2) a very important role in these exercises. In his later work Foucault, clearly inspired by Hadot's approach, uses the concept of "spirituality " in a similar vein, namely to indicate the transforming of one's mode of being, not just of one's thinking: 1 02

FREEDOM AND SPIRITUALITY

By spirituality I mean - but I'm not sure this definition can hold for very long the subject's attainment of a certain mode of being and the transformations that the subject must carry out on itself to attain this mode of being. I believe that spirituality and philosophy were identical or nearly identical in ancient spiritu­ ality. ( 1 997e: 294) Whereas Foucault here equates spirituality and ancient philosophy as such, in his 1 9 8 2 lectures The Hermeneutics of the Subject the concept of spirituality is linked to the concept of care of the self: "going through the . . . different forms of philosophy and the different forms of exercises and philosophical or spiritual practices, we see the principle of care of the self expressed in a variety of phrases" (2005 a: 12) . Carrette rightly identifies in the later Foucault an overlapping and merging of ethics and spirituality as each pertains to a "mode of self-formation" or a "mode of being" (Carrette 2 0 0 0 : 1 3 6, 1 3 8 ) . Spirituality in the later Foucault parallels his definition of ethical self-transformation through ascesis which involves one's whole way of life. It is in this sense that we find a spirituality without a spirit, without an incorporeal supernatural being or immortal soul, in Foucault's work. As with his early surrealist-inspired notion, the concept of spiritual­ ity opposes the Cartesian body/soul dualism. It explicitly involves the bodily dimension, be it this time in a normative context, that is, in the form of an ethos which is a lived ethics and as such involves bodily ele­ ments, acts and behaviour. The winning of an ethos, through a care of the self, clearly is some­ thing Foucault puts forward as an exit from the impoverished self­ techniques of modern man, which are over-determined by surveilling and scrutinizing disciplines and governing practices. "In the Greek and Roman civilizations, such practices of the self were much more important and especially more autonomous than they were later, after they were taken over to a certain extent by religious, pedagogical, medical, or psychiatric institutions" (Foucault 1 997e : 282, emphasis added) . Care of the self in antiquity used to be the framework for the knowledge of oneself instead of the other way around, as it is in Western modernity where a care of the self only occurs through the concern for truth (ibid. : 295) . We can conclude that the concept of spirituality in Foucault's final works points to this tradition of ethical self-transformation through ascesis, as an autonomous dimension of life. We then deal with practices of ethical self-transformation which are not dictated by moral rules or codes, but which come down to "prac­ tices of freedom", since people can freely create themselves as ethical 1 03

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

subjects. These ethical self-practices are "not something invented by the individual himself. They are models that he finds in his culture and are proposed, suggested, imposed upon him by his culture, his society, and his social group" (ibid, : 29 1 ) . However, through these models, tools and techniques one can acquire and freely create a personal ethos, visible in one's acts and way of life. When asked whether the care of the self in the classical sense should be updated, Foucault answers: "absolutely ", but adds that in mod­ ern times this of course will lead to something new (ibid. : 294 ). The "growth of capabilities" of modern man should be disentangled from the dominant power regime ( 1 9 9 7g: 3 1 7). Whereas in antiquity the care of the self was linked "to a virile society, to dissymmetry, exclusion of the other" ("all that is quite disgusting! "), "couldn't everyone's life become a work of art? " ( 1 9 97e: 25 8 , 26 1 ) . Foucault's normative hori­ zon is that freedom practices should be developed as much as possible by as many persons as possible. Foucault emphasizes that acquiring an ethos in antiquity always took place in different philosophical schools and groups, in which people through spiritual practices trained themselves in acquiring an ethos (2005 a: 1 1 3 ). Occasionally he talks about religious groups as well, for instance when he discusses the Therapeutae group in The Hermeneutics of the Subject (ibid. : 1 1 6 ) . He also refers to the autonomous ethical spiritual dimension in a religious context, discussing certain strands of Christianity, for instance when he states : during the Renaissance you s e e a whole series o f religious groups . . . that resist this pastoral power and claim the right to make their own statuses for themselves. According to these groups, the individual should take care of his own salvation independently of the ecclesiastical institution and of the ecclesiastical pastorate. We can see, therefore, a reappearance, up to a certain point, not of the culture of the self, which had never disappeared, but a reaffirmation of its autonomy . ( 1 9 9 7f: 278 , emphasis added) Note that once again Foucault emphasizes the relatively autonomous realm of ethical spiritual self-formation. Also, more importantly, note that according to him this realm can exist in religious contexts as well (Vintges 2004 ). The concept of spirituality does not refer to religion as such, as Carrette (2000) implies in several places, but to practices of free ethical self-transformation, which can be found inside as well as outside religious frameworks.

1 04

FREEDO M AND SPIRITUALITY

S p i ritu a l ity a nd truth

In addition to taking the form of free ethical self-transformation through self-techniques, the issue of spirituality also appears in Foucault's later work in relation to truth. In The Hermeneutics of the Subject he argues that "spirituality" is: the search, practice and experience through which the subject carries out the necessary transformations on himself in order to have access to the truth. We will call "spirituality " then the set of these researches, practices, and experiences . . . [which are for the subject . . . ] the price to be paid for access to the truth. (2005 a: 1 5 ) Before Descartes, knowledge was based o n this type o f spirituality. The "Cartesian moment", however, marks the beginning of the modern age of the history of truth, where knowledge and knowledge alone is the condition for the subject's access to truth. Moreover, for Descartes such access is possible without the individual "having to change or alter his being as subject", that is, without the need of transforming the structure of one's subjectivity in substantial ways (ibid. : 1 7) . Foucault acknowledges that w e can recognize a "false science" b y its appeal to (the necessity of) such a transformation. However, he then states that in "those forms of knowledge (savoir) that are not exactly

sciences, and which we should not seek to assimilate to the structure of science, there is again the strong and clear presence of at least cer­ tain elements, certain requirements of spirituality" (ibid. : 29, emphasis added) . Marxism and psychoanalysis are two forms of post-Cartesian knowledge that still demand an initiation and transformation of the subject in its very being. However, both forms of knowledge have tried to conceal this, instead of openly acknowledging the necessity of ethi­ cal self-transformation, that is, spirituality as a condition of access to truth (ibid. ) . Foucault seems to imply that philosophers should not try to assimilate their form of knowledge to the structure of science, but instead should have an eye for the relation of spirituality to truth. Perhaps to avoid any suggestion of privileging a philosophical type of knowledge which is based on initiation as closure, Foucault in his next years' lectures specifies his preferred notion of "spirituality as access to truth" by analysing the concept of parrhesia. The word parrhesia means "saying everything" . A "parrhesiastes" is the speaker who says everything he has in mind, even if it is something which can endanger his life - for instance if it is something different from what the king, 1 05

MICHEL

FOUCAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

or the majority of the people, believe. Foucault analyses at length how courageous truth-telling is part of the ancient tradition of spirituality as access to truth. In Fearless Speech, a collection of lectures delivered in Berkeley during the summer of 1 9 8 3 , Foucault defines the verbal activ­ ity of parrhesia as follows : "In parrhesia, the speaker uses his freedom and chooses frankness instead of persuasion, truth instead of falsehood or silence, the risk of death instead of life and security, criticism instead of flattery, and moral duty instead of self-interest and moral apathy" (200 1 : 1 9-20). In these lectures Foucault once more outlines the ancient Greek ideal that one's whole way of life is important: the true parrhesiastes is a per­ son "of moral integrity", a person "of blameless principle and integrity ", whose acts and thoughts are in accordance (ibid. : 69). In his studies on parrhesia Foucault wants to trace "the roots of what we can call the criti­ cal tradition of the West". He wanted to construct a "genealogy of the critical attitude in Western philosophy" (ibid. : 1 70-7 1 ) . His emphasis on the parrhesia aspect of ancient spirituality might well be his implicit answer to the possible objection that, at least since Descartes, knowledge has become democratic and open instead of the prerequisite of a certain privileged group, and critical instead of based on persuasion. Foucault's work on parrhesia is intended to articulate a democratic, open spiritual basis of knowledge for present purposes: a philosophical attitude of cri­ tique which is about one's whole way of life and in that sense "spiritual", an attitude which he identified as the core value of Western Enlighten­ ment ( 1 9 9 7g) and which he practised in his own work and life.3

Po l itical s p i ritual ity

Foucault's concept of spirituality as free ethical self-transformation through ascesis is political through and through in that it is an exit, a critical alternative to the "normal" Western subject formations of the rational autonomous individual and the deep self, the products of the power/knowledge regime of Western modernity. This is the reason why Foucault invokes the concept of "political spirituality " when he speaks about "the will to discover a different way of governing oneself through a different way of dividing up true and false - this is what I would call political spiritualite ' ( 1 9 9 1 b : 82, quoted in Carrette 2000: 1 3 7) . Foucault is expressing the need to detach our subjectivity from Western modernity's political rationality. He sympathized with any resistance against this true/false regime of subjectivity, a resistance he also identified in the 1 978 Iranian '

"

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Revolution, which started as a revolution against the attempt to mod­ ernize Islamic countries in a European mode. In the last lines of his arti­ cle "What Are the Iranians Dreaming About? " Foucault puts forward the "possibility we have forgotten since the Renaissance and the great crisis of Christianity, a political spirituality" (2005b : 209). In another article on this subject, Foucault talks about S hi'ism as a form of Islam that differentiates between "mere external obedience to the code" and "the profound spiritual life". In revolutionary Iran at that time iden­ tification with the Islamic tradition combined with "the renewal of spiritual experiences", that is, the "desire to renew their entire exist­ ence" (2005 c : 255 ) . When invoking a "political spirituality", it is the dimension of freedom practices opposing truth regimes, and involving the whole of peoples' ways of life, that Foucault has in mind, and once more we find that he locates this dimension within religious contexts as well.

A cross-c u ltura l con cept of freed o m

We have seen that in h i s final works Foucault refers t o practices o f free ethical spiritual self-transformation not only in secular contexts, but in religious ones as well. He refers not only to certain strands in Christianity and Islam, but also in Asian religion. Liebman Schaub dis­ cusses whether there is a counterpart to Foucault's hopelessly trapped "Western man", in the form of a hidden discourse in Foucault's work, which can be designated as an "Oriental subtext" (Liebmann Schaub 1 9 8 9) . Foucault concealed its presence since he wanted to avoid his work being stigmatized as "religious" or "metaphysical", and since he did not want to offer any anthropological model, that is, any absolute truth concerning the human condition. According to Liebmann Schaub, Foucault's non-Western counter­ discourse is to be found in his style rather than in overt opposition to the Western, "normalized" way of life. She, however, only analyses the early Foucault, focusing on his notions of transgression and his ideas on the disappearance of the rational autonomous subject. She argues that Foucault's unsettling style is informed by Buddhism. He wants to show the essential insufficiency of language for expressing truth, in other words that wisdom is beyond words. It is through his style, which criti­ cizes Western civilization as a whole, that he has been a "teacher" and a "moralist". However, if we turn to Foucault's later work, in which Eastern - and Western - philosophies are approached from their practical, ethical side, 107

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we find that Foucault does offer a positive alternative to the "normal­ ized" Western ways of life, through his new concept of spirituality as free ethical self-transformation through ascesis. Foucault, during his visit to Japan in 1 97 8 , showed great interest in the practice of Zen Buddhism. He took lessons and afterwards said to his teacher: "I'd like to ask you just one question. It's about the universality of Zen. Is it possible to separate the practice of Zen from the totality of the reli­ gion and the practice of Buddhism ? " ( 1 999b: 1 1 3 ) . He also remarks that whereas Zen and Christian mysticism cannot be compared, the technique of Christian spirituality and that of Zen are comparable. Foucault's question and remark show his interest in ethical spiritual self-techniques as a cross-cultural phenomenon. He not only explored Zen in 1 9 78 but also Islam, as we have seen from his articles in which he described the Iranian Revolution in terms of a spirituality which opposed Truth regimes and possesses the potential to inspire new politi­ cal forms. What I see in these texts is not a right or wrong judgement on the Iranian Revolution, 4 but the search for a new concept of freedom which is cross-cultural in that it can take into account a diversity of moral frameworks, including religious ones. Paraphrasing Liebman Schaub, and together with Bernauer (20 04) , I would conclude that an "Oriental Subtext" runs through all of Foucault's work. Bernauer asks whether an oriental influence is to be seen in Foucault's radical interrogation of Western individualism and whether his notion of self-stylization was influenced by Asia, more specifically his visits to Japan in 1 970 and 1 978 . I suggest that this influence has been the background to his reconceptualizing of freedom in other terms than the ones of individual rational autonomy, in terms namely of spirituality as ethical self-transformation through exercises, which involve the creation and invention of one's whole way of life. His oriental interest, in my view, has inspired this normative horizon of freedom practices for all, as a cross-cultural alternative to the dominant concept of freedom of Western liberalism.

The emerg i n g d i sco u rse of I s l a m i c fe m i n i s m

The emerging discourse of "Islamic feminism" illustrates the topical­ ity of Foucault's new concepts. Since the 1 9 9 0s, new perspectives and practices are developing that demonstrate that Islam and "gender j us­ tice" are not inherently incompatible. These perspectives and prac­ tices also criticize both Western feminism and liberalism for imposing Western concepts of freedom and autonomy on believing Muslim 1 08

FREEDOM AND SPIRITUALITY

women, as well as Islamic fundamentalists for claiming that women in the Islamic world are already able to live their lives to the fullest. 5 Believing Muslim women in, for example, Egypt, Malaysia, Indonesia, Iran and Morocco do contest structures of male domination in the Islamic world by arguing for gender equality and gender justice in new interpretations of the moral source of Islam, the Qur'an. Scholars such as Leila Ahmed, Amina Wadud and Asma Barlas refer to the dynamic and diverse history of Islam for their reinterpretations of the Qur'an and Islamic historical traditions. They highlight the egalitarian Spirit of Islam's ethical spiritual message, and the active role of women in the history of Islam. Other studies show the active role of women in Islamic societies today, demonstrating that Islamic women are in no way the passive, oppressed creatures that many Western feminists hold them to be. In Muslim-majority countries there are women's organizations that have a feminist agenda (such as Malaysia's "Sisters in Islam"). This new emerging discourse of Islamic feminism can be analysed as a political spirituality, that is, as a practice of free ethical self­ transformation which opposes the Truth regime of Western liberalism as well as the fundamentalist type of Islam. These women are freely but ethically transforming themselves through all kinds of self-techniques, on the collective and individual level, such as veiling in new contexts, educating themselves in interpreting the Qur'an, practising mixed gen­ der prayer, and inventing themselves as modern, believing, Muslim women. The emerging discourse of Islamic feminism shows that West­ ern feminists who contend that feminism should be based on secular liberalism's fundamentals should enlarge, if not revise, their concept of freedom, so as to escape the limits that are imposed on all women. 6 When asked about the state of the art of Western philosophy, Foucault said: European thought finds itself at a turning point . . . (which) is nothing other than the end of imperialism. The crisis of Western thought is identical to the end of imperialism . . . There is no phi­ losopher who marks out this period. For it is the end of the era of Western philosophy. Thus, if philosophy of the future exists, it must be born outside of Europe, or equally born in consequence of meetings and impacts between Europe and non-Europe. ( 1 999c: 1 1 3 ) Foucault, through his new concept o f spirituality without a spirit, in the sense of free ethical self-transformation through self-techniques, has offered us new concepts of freedom and equality which criticize 1 09

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

Western modernity7 as well as other Truth regimes, and which offer a cross-cultural normative perspective. In my view Foucault was ahead of his time in that he felt that we have to change our concepts to make sense of the culturally pluralist world we live in.

N otes 1. I borrow this phrase from Jeremy Carrette (200 0 : 60; see also 1 62-3 , n.72). 2. Many argue that Foucault's work Discipline and Punish lacks any normative perspective. Explicit phrases, however, clearly show Foucault's rejection of the disciplines as domination, for instance where he speaks of the development of the disciplines as the "dark side" of the establishment of the egalitarian juridical framework (Foucault 1 979 : 222) and of the "malicious minutiae of the disci­ plines and their investigations" (ibid. : 226). 3. Discussing Kant's text "What is Enlightenment? " Foucault points out how Kant's answer "sapere aude" ("dare to know") refers not only to "institutional, ethical and political" conditions, but to a "spiritual" condition as well. Kant's answer involves as well an appeal to an "act of courage to be accomplished personally ", by man, "by a change that he himself will bring about in himself " . Western Enlightenment i s a spiritual attitude t o Foucault. He argues that i t is "not faithfulness to doctrinal elements but, rather, the permanent reactivation of an attitude" that may connect us with the Enlightenment ( 1 997g: 306, 3 1 2). 4. My view here is contrary to Mary and Anderson (2005), who fiercely attack Foucault. For a critique of their view see Honig (20 0 8 ) . We have to take into account that in 1978 many people considered the Iranian Revolution to be primarily an anti-colonialist revolution. The enthusiasm of this anti-imperialist uprising is what Foucault tries to describe in a few j ournalistic articles, wherein he discusses how people were "spiritually" involved, in that their whole way of life was at stake, and speaks in terms of a "political spirituality", opposing Truth regimes and producing something new. Foucault responded to the vio­ lence that marked the post-revolutionary power struggle in Iran by distancing himself from its outcome in the form of simply another regime of Truth. In journalistic articles published in April and May 1 979 he supported the rights of the individual against the "bloody government of a fundamentalist clergy" (Foucault 2005d: 265). 5. For an overview see Dubel and Vintges (2007). 6 . Okin 1 999 has been very influential in the debate on feminism and multicultur­ alism. As the title indicates, Okin argues that multiculturalism is bad for women, and that only Western liberalism has a place for women's rights. Instead I would argue that Western liberalism in its own way puts limits on women, in that they have to adapt themselves to the ways of life, and subject form, of the Western autonomous rational individual. 7. "The political, ethical, social, philosophical problem of our days is not to try to liberate the individual from the state, and from the state's institutions, but to liberate us both from the state and from the type of individualization which is linked to the state. We have to promote new forms of subjectivity through the refusal of this kind of individuality which has been imposed on us for several centuries" (Foucault 1 9 8 2a: 2 1 6) . 1 10

E I G HT

Eduardo Mendieta

Freedom h a s a h i story

Freedom is one of the most intractable philosophical problems in the Western philosophical tradition. Indeed, there is a way in which the history of Western philosophy can be written in terms of the different attempts that have been made to define freedom. The history of eth­ ics, without question, has been determined by how freedom has been defined. In the West, since the ancient Greeks, what we take to be human, or rather, the humanity of humans, has been defined in terms of freedom. Humans are free animals, the argument goes, whereas other animals are unfree because they are determined by instinct. Yet what is this freedom that marks the boundary between human and non-human animals ? How does it relate to reason ? How does it relate to our passions and emotions ? How does it relate to our imagination ? Are we free if we submit to a putatively rational norm ? Is this not a form of subjugation that constrains freedom? Are we free if we choose our will contrary to what is alleged to be a commandment of God ? Are we free if we have been condemned to damnation by an original sin that had nothing to do with us ? Are we free if we abandon ourselves to our pleasure and seek to live on the razor's edge of pleasurable danger ? And, perhaps most importantly, has freedom been construed or defined in the same way across different historical periods? That is to say, was the freedom of the Egyptian peasant the same as that of the Greek and Roman citizens, the same as that of a slave in an American plantation, the same as that of a citizen in the European Union ? If ethics has a his­ tory, freedom must have a history, too (Patterson 1 9 9 1 ) . The history 111

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CONCEPTS

of freedom then turns out to be a history of ethics, as well as a history of the different ways in which we have conceived what it means to be a subject, an agent, and a free person. In this chapter I am going to offer a way of reading and understand­ ing Michel Foucault's work as an extremely original analysis of free­ dom. My reading of Foucault's work will illustrate that his work has been profoundly misunderstood when he has been read exclusively as a thinker of domination, subjugation, subjection, discipline, normaliza­ tion and power. I will show that Foucault's work can be understood as an exploration of freedom, as so many attempts to understand the ways in which freedom is not a given, an a priori, primordial and foundational right of a subject, but is instead an achievement, a practice, a vocation, an ascesis, a way of being. We are not born free. We make ourselves free through practices of caring for ourselves, of governing, relating ourselves to ourselves through others, for either love or hate of others is a way of relating to ourselves. Freedom is thus not a state of being, but a way of being in relation to ourselves, to others and to our world. Freedom is a praxis. Additionally, I will seek to show that freedom is not unitary and ontologically stable, but rather that it is relational and generative. Freedom is not a given aspect of human nature, nor is there a human nature. We produce our humanity by generating modalities of freedom, ways of relating to ourselves, to truth, and to our historical period, or present. If there is freedom, it is always creative freedom. Thus, I hope to show that Foucault has been one of the most important contemporary philosophers of freedom. In this chapter I will follow Foucault's own way of characterizing his work as gravitating or revolving around three major axes, each mark­ ing a particular period or stage of his work. Thus, there are the axes of knowledge, power and ethics. These axes have been the focus of particular approaches or methods of investigation: archaeology, geneal­ ogy and hermeneutics. Yet Foucault himself resisted and contested the attempt to see a succession of methods or problems within his work. In his view, his work is held together by one central motif, the subject, or more precisely "practices of the self " ( 1 997c, 2005a, 1 997a). In contrast to reading his work as an analysis of power, we should under­ stand it as a genealogy of the subject. A genealogical analysis seeks to understand how something could become an object of preoccupation, concern, debate and admonition. Instead of assuming the givenness of an object of analysis, genealogy aims to show how a series of practices, institutions and structures constituted the object of study. Additionally, for Foucault, a genealogical study is in turn a history of our present; it is an investigation of our own contemporaneity or contemporary 1 12

THE PRACTICE OF FREEDOM

times. We are the ones asking how this particular object of analysis was constituted and how that constitution informs our own ways of being and relating. To understand Foucault's work in this way, however, also means that we have to recognize how central the question of freedom is to this project. Genealogy is a technique of analysis that renders what we took to be natural, ontologically stable, historically immutable into something that is historically contingent, produced, mutable and thus open to transformation, revision, abandonment and challenge. Geneal­ ogy, it could be said, is a science of freedom, of creative freedom that opens up horizons of being by challenging us to exceed, to transgress, to step over the limit established by existing modes of subjectivity and subjectivation. Foucault's genealogies of the modern subject aim to draw out the ways in which freedom is a practice and not a given, an a priori, something antecedent to the subject. I will show in the following that Foucault developed this generative understanding of freedom through original readings of key figures in the Western philosophical canon. I will focus on three key figures that Foucault studied closely in his published works, and in his lectures at the College de France during the last decade of his life, namely Socrates, Augustine and Kant. I will show that through his readings of each one of these figures Foucault challenges us to see each of them in a new light, in the light of the his­ tory of freedom and the subject.

Socrates or dem ocratic freedom

Socrates is undoubtedly one of the most important figures in the West­ ern philosophical canon. He is also the exemplar of what Foucault called "philosophy as a way of life" (2005 a) . He died after having been sentenced to death by his fellow Athenians. Socrates had been charged with "corrupting the youth" and for "impiety". Socrates chose to die rather than escape and thus betray his Athens. Socrates died for his convictions: he did not want to betray Athens or his philosophical calling. For this reason, Socrates is also a martyr of philosophy as a way of life (see Hadot 1 99 5 ) . In many of Plato's dialogues, i n particular those dealing with vir­ tue, we encounter a Socrates who argues that knowledge, courage and justice are virtues (Gorgias, Laches, Protagoras, Sophists) . These Pla­ tonic dialogues have left us with a philosophical problem, however. Are knowledge, courage and j ustice one or separate virtues ? If knowledge and courage are virtues, should this not entail that we should also be 1 13

MICHEL FOU CAULT: KEY CON CEPTS

just, that is to say, moral ? If courage and justice are forms of knowledge does this not entail that we should act correctly ? In the history of West­ ern philosophy in general, and within the history of the appropriation of Plato's work in particular, Socrates' moral theory has been treated as both a form of moral intellectualism and as moral eudaimonia (Vlastos 1 9 9 1 ) . Moral intellectualism is a form of moral cognitivism, which argues that morality is a form of knowledge, that we can discover what is the right thing to do if we set out to question our reasons for doing the just and moral. Moral eudaimonia, on the other hand, argues that morality is the pursuit of the happy, content, fulfilled life. It should be noted that for the Greeks, eudaimonia, or happiness, was not related to pleasure or narcissism, but was rather about attaining a beautiful and admirable life. Thus, the pursuit of the happy, admirable, life is the pursuit of virtues that are linked to knowledge. For Socrates, morality is a form of knowledge. If we know what is the right thing to do, can we fail to do it, and if so, why ? This has been called the problem of the weakness of the will, or Al
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